秒速飞艇思路 http://www.tdrbrbec.buzz An International research journal of Computer Science and Technology Wed, 07 Aug 2019 05:46:51 +0000 en-US hourly 1 https://wordpress.org/?v=5.1.1 An Assessment of the Effectiveness of E-Learning in AMA Olongapo Campus - 首頁-博電競菠菜平臺|電競菠菜直播 - 比分滾球競猜吧! http://www.tdrbrbec.buzz/vol12no3/an-assessment-of-the-effectiveness-of-e-learning-in-ama-olongapo-campus/ Thu, 01 Aug 2019 06:51:28 +0000 http://www.tdrbrbec.buzz/?p=10814 Introduction

The advancement of technology today has activated vast changes by the way we get to, expend, talk about, and offer substance. AMA Olongapo Campus is the only IT Academic Institutions that offers E-learning program that integrates with blended learning and face to face method of delivery. Normally, learning is sticking to this same pattern. Whereas numerous need learning at a state of need, numerous learn during evening and at weekends.

By giving a contrasting option to the paper-based learning and testing of customary classrooms, e-learning is a successful route for associations to essentially lessen their carbon impression. On one hand, it is noticed that e-learning is at any rate as viable as customary instructional techniques (Rosenberg, Graduate and Matear, 2003), and that there are no significant contrasts in scholastic execution between the more conventional and more innovation arranged methods of guideline (Cavanaugh, 2001). Then again, many

surveys go further, mirroring a primarily inspirational state of mind towards the effect of e-learning (Mayer, 2003). When we measure the students’ performance using e-learning, it gives quantifiable information followed continuously all through every period of learning. This information can be utilized to enhance their learning technique. The researchers want to assess the effectiveness of the e-learning in AMA Computer College Olongapo Campus.

Statement of the problem

The study will focus on the Assessment of the Effectiveness of E-Learning of AMA Olongapo Campus.

Specifically, the research study sought to find answers to the following questions:

1. What is the profile of the respondents when group according to:

? age;

? sex;

? course?

2. What criteria are appropriate for the Assessment of the Effectiveness of E-Learning Tools to the students?

3. What are the e-learning materials available to Students for curriculum completion?

4. What are the strategies for improving the use of e-learning materials in AMA Olongapo Campus?

Significance of the study

The study of Assessment of the Effectiveness of E-Learning can be a learning paradigm in the tertiary schools by enhancing the students’ knowledge and skills as well of AMA Computer College Olongapo City, Philippines. The goal of the study is to determine what students needs to learn before the eLearning course, though summative assessment gauges knowledge mastery after the eLearning course. Research works are left upon with a view to broadening the wilderness of information. The present investigation was accordingly completed with this same goal, particularly in the field of e-learning. It has along these lines, added to the augmentation of the wilderness of information in the accompanying ways.

To begin with, the examination has demonstrated the prescient energy of the chose factors, particularly

Scope and Delimitation

The target users of the study are the Senior High School and Collegiate students who are currently enrolled in AMA Olongapo Campus. The student models of learning were recognized on the premise of a particular example including those under e-learning study show and those under the conventional examination display. Also, the hypothetical idea of this investigation constrains its immediate pertinence for the instructive praxis. Along these lines, it is trusted that future research may moreover concentrate on how understudy perceptions about learning are affected with regards to ordinary learning conditions. The outcomes could empower instructive professionals to support the appropriation of understudy learning models which summon a profound arranged and self-controlled examination procedure.

Hypothesis

The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of the Assessment of the Effectiveness of E-Learning Tools among studemts of AMa computer College

Conceptual Framework and Theoretical Frameworks

The input is consisting of conducted researches, available resources from the books and internet, interviews, survey and suggestions from the expert. Wlhile, the second component is a self-administered questionnaire to collect data was given to and retrieved from the respondents and data were gathered then processed and treated statistically. Lastly. Assessed the Effectiveness of E-Learning tools to AMA Olongapo Campus Students were the output of this study.

Review of Related Literature

Zare, Sarikhani, Salari and Mansouri quotes Levy’s definition of e-learning as a system based on technology, organization, and management which bestows upon the students the ability to learn via internet and facilitates their learning. Additionally, Zare, et al., stated that the use of electronic technologies has led to the development of educational opportunities and helps students develop their skills.1 According to Guragain e-learning systems are the storehouses of information, trainings and knowledge. He also stated that one may find it difficult at times to learn new ideas and that e-learning system provide the possibility for students to learn the same material repeatedly until they are satisfied. In addition, e-learning is usually a cost-efficient way of learning for most students as they can choose from a large range of courses and make the selection depending on their needs. Furthermore, Guragain explained that in the long run, e-learning is usually a cheaper option but still for the first time it might prove too expensive for some institutions.2 Goyal quotes Brandon Hall’s article that the online learners enjoy an efficiency advantage in being able to cover the same material in approximately half the time of a traditional class. Moreover, E-learning has a velocity advantage by being able to reach a large number of learners in a shorter time.3 In addition, Goyal postulates that the learning is mostly a socio-cognitive activity, not every student will find E-learning suitable for his or her learning style.3 Agarwal and Pandey stated that E-learning is superior to traditional learning when it comes to reduction of training time, cost and having better effect. E-learning has endorsed student knowledge and improved the process of education training. Also, they claimed that e-learning is the most convenient way to pursue a degree in higher education.4 Shehabat and Mahdi stated that online learning should be an active, not passive, experience. They stated that delivering an effective e-learning module must confirm to two major development guidelines: The first depends on a classical principle of learning, namely, learning by doing and the second guideline is that man early efforts at e-learning suffered a high rate of dissatisfaction from the students. Moreover, Shehabat and Mahdi stated that making the e-learning course more social will guarantee its acceptance and success by both students and teachers.5 Alday and Pascual postulates that electronic communication has reduced the world into a global village. Additionally, e-learning empower both learners and teachers thus providing opportunities for superior learning experiences.6 Aforesaid, Espinosa stated that investing on e-learning will benefit both teachers and students. Teachers can disseminate their lessons and assignments with ease, and students can work on their lessons at home. Also, he stated that technological advances had greatly changed the education landscape in that teaching is no longer confined to the traditional face-to-face delivery of lessons.7 Capili and Manuel postulates that e-learning is essentially the network-enabled transfer of skills and knowledge, refers to use electronic applications and processes to learn.8 Mercado quotes Wentling’s definition of e-Learning: it is the acquisition and use of knowledge distributed and facilitated primarily by electronic means. Furthermore, Teaching in an online course involves more than replicating classroom strategies in a different form.9 MST News stated the growing availability of the Internet to a wider population; plus, the developments in multimedia technologies such as better platforms and cheaper gadgets, are the prime movers of e-learning. Aforesaid, e-learning can take place anywhere other than a classroom. It can be taken self-paced, individually or in a group, with or without interaction from an instructor. E-learning provides many other features which enable both the educator and the learner to attain educational goals more easily. In the study, maximizing the usage of e-learning tools helps the students to be more effective in terms of scholastic skills; allowing them to be more flexible by giving them necessary time to read, learn and to practice their subjects that may result to a better academic performance. Withal, the resources are not limited and accessible thus providing them more chance to explore their subjects.10

Methdology

Research Design

The researchers will be using a descriptive research design approach as part of a logical strategy which includes watching and depicting the conduct of a subject without affecting it in any capacity. Also, the researchers will be using Quantitative research approach because it can produce numerical information and as a rule looks to set up easygoing connections between at least two factors, utilizing measurable techniques to test the quality and importance of the connections. Quantitative research utilizing strategies that takes into consideration the estimation of factors inside a gathering of individuals or gatherings and bringing about numerical information exposed to factual investigation. It is the investigation of specific questions by methods for numeric portrayals and factual examination. The fundamental objective of this exploration is to gauge, characterize and make a write about the connection of specific components.

Population, Sample Size, and Sampling Technique

The researchers utilized a helpful arbitrary examining system. The researchers focus on a specific quality of a population that are of intrigue, which best empowered to answer the specific questions

Description of the Respondents

The respondents of the study are the Senior High School and Collegiate students of AMA Olongapo Campus.

 Research Instruments

The researcher constructed and used questionnaire that had determined the perception of the Senior High School and Collegiate students of AMA Olongapo Campus. Polls have points of interest over some different kinds of overviews in that they are shoddy, don’t require as much exertion from the examiner as verbal or phone studies, and frequently have institutionalized answers that make it easy to order information. Be that as it may, such institutionalized answers may baffle clients. Surveys are additionally forcefully restricted by the way that respondents must have the capacity to peruse the inquiries and react to them. In this manner, for some statistic bunches leading a study by survey may not be commonsense. As a kind of review, surveys additionally have a large number of similar issues identifying with inquiry development and wording that exist in different sorts of supposition surveys. The substance of the survey depended on readings and clear circumstance inside the said establishment. The substance of the instrument was exposed to the expert assessment and analysis by those with important information in regards to the field of study. Their remarks and proposal were used to make the poll legitimate and the investigation progressively significant

Data collection or data gathering procedure

After permission was granted from the School Director of AMA Olongapo Campus to conduct and administer questionnaires to Senior High School and Collegiate Students, the researchers personally asked the assistance of the Dean in identifying the respondents and distribution of the questionnaires. During the retrieval of the questionnaires, the researchers personally collected the questionnaires and conducted the interviews to clarify information. Their feedback criticisms and suggestions were together noted and considered for the improvement of the E-Learning Tools.

Statistical Treatment of Data

To answer the specific questions raised in the statement, data gathered from the questionnaire were tabulated, analyzed and interpreted.

Presentation, Analysis, and Interpretation of Data

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Conclusion and Recommendation

This indicates the conclusion of the study that was conducted, and the recommendation of the researchers in order to further improve the study.

Conclusion

The analysis that was made by the researchers provided a definitive and elaborated study based on the results of the data gathered, wherein the majority of the respondents thinks that e-learning education is very good in terms of giving the students time to be flexible, allowing them to study and do other chores or even work. In addition, the platform itself is a well-designed and a user-friendly webpage which makes it easy to study and to answer online activities. Although the abundance of students wasn’t

entirely certain and had doubts to their answer, as most of the respondents also answered fair when it comes to the aid that the e-learning could give to them when answering quizzes and exams, the alignment of the discussed subjects and courses and the order of the discussion. The level of their decisiveness conquered their dubiety to preferring online modules rather than reference books. The researchers conclude that even the e-learning education system promotes a high productivity and enhances learners’ effectivity in learning it still needs improvement and more upgrades.

Recommendation

The study that was conducted limits itself from situations related to the problem stated, this do not tackle the IQ level of the students which separates a lot of aspects in terms of knowledge capabilities, also the researchers only picked enrolled college students of AMA Computer College-Olongapo.

The researchers recommend the future researchers to further expand and elaborate the topic in order to enhance the study. To further extend the scope and distribute further information regarding the tackled study

Based on the assessment it was found out the study is really recommendable.

Acknowledgement

This research was supported by AMA Computer College-Olongapo City, Philippines.

We are deeply grateful to the School Director, Mrs. Catherine Ortiguerra-Alop, Dean Paul Corsina and Faculty Members of AMA Computer College Olongapo City for their understanding during the process of developing this research.

References

  1. Zare, M., Sarikhani, R., Salari, M. and Mansouri, V. (2019). The Impact of E-learning on University Students’ Academic Achievement and Creativity. [online] Penerbit.uthm.edu.my. Available at: http://penerbit.uthm.edu.my/ojs/index.php/JTET/article/view/1152 [Accessed 12 Dec. 2018].
  2. Guragain, N. (2019). E-Learning Benefits and Applications. [online] Theseus.fi. Available at: https://www.theseus.fi/handle/10024/105103 [Accessed 12 Dec. 2018].
  3. Goyal, S. (2012). E-Learning: Future of Education. Journal of Education and Learning. 1st ed. [ebook] Available at: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/287545379_ELearning_Future_of_Education [Accessed 12 Dec. 2018].
  4. Agarwal, H. and Pandey, G. (2013). Impact of E-learning in education. International Journal of Science and Research (IJSR), 2(12), pp.146-147. [Accessed 12 Dec. 2018]
  5. Shehabat, I. and Mahdi, S. (2009). E-Learning and its Impact to the Educational System in the Arab World.. [ebook] IEEE International Conference on Information Management and Engineering., pp.220-225. Available at: https://www.academia.edu/1094365/Elearning_and_its_Impact_to_the_Educational_System_in_the_Arab_World [Accessed 12 Dec. 2018].
  6. Alday, R. and Pascual M. (2019). To be or not to be: E-teaching in Graduate school in Philippine Perspective.. [online] Available at: http://research.lpubatangas.edu.ph/wpcontent/uploads/2014/05/IJCTE-To-be-or-not-Tobe.pdf [Accessed 12 Dec. 2018].
  7. Espinosa, J.P. (2016) Learning with the help of Technology. [online] https://www.manilatimes.net/learning-with-the-help-of-technology/286384 [Accessed 12 Dec. 2018]
  8. Manila Standard. (2019). E-Learning: The next paradigm shift in education. [online] Available at: http://manilastandard.net/tech/tech-news/100860/e-learning-the-nextparadigm-shift-in-education.html [Accessed 12 Dec. 2018].
  9. Capili, A. and Manuel, K. (2014). Development of E-Learning System for Philippine Literature Subject of College of Arts and Science in Cavite State University. [Accessed 12 Dec. 2018]
  10. Mercado, C. (2019). Readiness Assessment Tool for An eLearning Environment … -MAFIADOC.COM. [online] mafiadoc.com. Available at: https://mafiadoc.com/readiness-assessment-tool-for-an-elearning-environment-_599082991723ddca69545a85.html [Accessed 12 Dec. 2018].
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Copy Move Image Forgery Detection with Exact Match Block Based Technique - 首頁-博電競菠菜平臺|電競菠菜直播 - 比分滾球競猜吧! http://www.tdrbrbec.buzz/vol12no3/copy-move-image-forgery-detection-with-exact-match-block-based-technique/ Mon, 29 Jul 2019 10:31:38 +0000 http://www.tdrbrbec.buzz/?p=10783 Introduction

 In today’s digital world, images are a significant part of digital communication. An image can define a situation better than words. Digital images are used in medical science, forensic investigation, journalism, marketing, agriculture and most extensively in social networking websites such as Instagram, Facebook, and Twitter etc. From the time when photography was invented, organisations and individuals have often searched many ways to modify images in order to mislead its viewer. Initially it was equitably a difficult task, as it required many hours of effort by a professional expert. However, with the advent of digital technology it has become easy to modify images and achieve professional results as reported by Sharma (2014). Any person who does not have enough knowledge about the background of digital images can alter the foreground visual of an image by using user friendly image processing software and it can change the intact meaning of the image. It is of no harm if done for improving their pictures to post on social networking websites. But it is an offence when changes are made on an image which is a proof of a criminal investigation. This is called digital image forgery. Keeping in mind the forensic reasons it is essential to spot forgery. The type of image forgery which is easiest to do is copy move image forgery in which a section of an image is cloned and pasted to some another section of the same image as shown in Figure 1.

Figure 1: Original Image (left) Forged Image (right)

Click here to View figure

In this paper we propose an algorithm to detect copy move forgery which matches small regions in image of size b x b and declares those regions as forged which match exactly.

Literature Reviewed

In the past few years researchers have developed several techniques to spot image forgery.

The main types of forgery are image splicing and image cloning.16 These methods work on the main idea that there is a correlation between the copied and moved region.  The first method is exhaustive search in which all the pixels are matched to detect the forgery.2 Next is Key-Point based in which SIFT or SURF features are computed for key-points for forgery detection.10 Then in block based method the image is divided into small sized blocks, then these are matched for forgery detection in exact match.2 Functions such as DCT,1,5,9 DFrWT,4 SVD,7 PCA7 is applied on the divided blocks, and then these are matched for forgery detection.

Copy Move Digital Image Forgery

It is a very common type of forgery in which a segment of image itself is imitated and pasted on another segment. It is done in order to hide some information present on image as it is easy to copy a part of image and paste into another position of the same image using user friendly image processing tools. There are two types of information present in an image: – the background and the main objects. The background information such as greenery, stones, sky, ground, water, buildings and fabric are irregular surfaces suitable for this kind of forgery as the area copied from this context gets merged in the image in such a way that it is not visible by the human eye.16 Figure 2 shows a street lamp is replicated and inserted at another position near the tree, which looks very realistic.

Figure 2: Original Image (left) and copy-move forged image (right)

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Copy Move Forgery Detection Approaches

The methods explored by researchers are shown in Figure 3 are illuminated below:

(A) Brute Force is a basic copy-move forgery detection type using Exhaustive Search and Autocorrelation explained as:

(1) Exhaustive Search is an easy-going approach of detecting copy-move forgery. A digital image is a representation of a real image as a set of numbers called the picture elements commonly called pixels. Pixels can be stored and handled by a digital computer. For each pixel, the imaging device records a number that describe some property of this pixel such as intensity of light or its colour. The idea is to match each pixel value with other pixel values, starting from top left corner of image to bottom right corner and mark the duplicated pixel. Exhaustive search uses circularly shifted versions of forged image to match with other parts. It reduces the computational complexity as a pixel value is matched twice with other pixel values, so half of the comparisons are reduced. But there are two limitations of this technique:

I. An image of size 400 x 400 will require 400! (6.4034 x 10868 ) contrasts, which is certainly a very large amount resulting in a high complexity.

II. A grayscale image uses pixel values between 0-255. According to pigeonhole principle it is certain that almost half of the pixel values will be repeated.

Figure 3: Copy-Move Forgery Detection Approaches

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(2) Auto correlation works on the logic that the copy-moved i.e. the shifted parts show peaks in auto correlation, which are an indication of forgery.

(B) Key Point Based clone detection method converts the color space of image if required and uses either of two methods SIFT and SURF to extract unique features and matches them to detect forgery. The process is shown in Figure 4:

Figure 4: Steps of Key-point based clone detection method

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(C) Block Based copy-move forgery detection method uses two types of matches Exact Match and Robust Match as described below:

(1) Exact Match

This method is used to find those image segments which match exactly. As shown in Figure 6, a square block of size b is moved over the image of size M N, starting from top left corner to bottom right corner, matrices of size b  b  are taken out and stored in a two dimensional array A with (M-b+1)  (N-b+1) rows and b x b columns. The two indistinguishable rows in array A relate to two matching image segments. Then, instead of matching each row with other row, all the rows are lexicographically sorted. As a result, the rows having similar pixel values come closer. Therefore the task reduces to matching a row with its neighbour only, which reduces the computational complexity of matching steps.5 This can be done only in MN log2 (MN) number of steps. The matching segments are highlighted.

 (2) Robust Match

It works on the idea similar to exact match. First, the blocks are extracted as in exact match. But instead of matching the exact pixel values of blocks, a function is applied on blocks. Next, unique features are extracted from each block. Then these features are matched in order to detect forgery.

Material and Methodology

Material

Many researchers use MATLAB to implement their research.1,7,11,12,13,14,15 However, the proposed algorithm is implemented by converting it to a program in Octave language as it’s community edition is open source and its scripts are compatible with MATLAB scripts.

Methodology

The proposed algorithm is based on exact match block based technique. Initial tests have shown that it takes much more time in matching all the possible regions in an image. Thus some assumptions are formulated for the detection algorithm2:

a) It must match the small image fragments.

b) It must work in a practical time with less number of images that have been falsely detected as forged.

c) The forged part must be connected instead of individual pixels and no post-processing should be done on the image.

The steps involved to detect copy move forgery are shown in Figure 3 and described as:

A) Pre-processing— The input image is converted into grayscale as grayscale is easy to handle. A standard formula is used to convert RGB image into grayscale image which is I = 0.299 R + 0.587G + 0.114B where R, G, B are the three frames a coloured input image and I is the resulting image.4,11,15

B) Block Division– In square block partitioning, the color space converted image of size M×N is divided into square blocks of size b by overlapping a window of size b. Starting from top left corner to the bottom right corner, extraction of total (M-b+1) × (N-b+1) blocks is done as shown in Figure 6. However, the window size must be chosen cautiously, because if a window size larger than forged region is chosen, it will not be able to detect the possible forgery. The obtained matrices are stored in a array A as shown below. As there are a total of Nb = (M-b+1) × (N-b+1) blocks, so there are total Nb rows and b×b columns in matrix A. As shown in Figure 7, the rows be stored as V1,V2…….V(M-b+1) × (N-b+1).5,7

Figure 5: Flowchart of Proposed Algorithm

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Figure 6: Block Division in Block Based Copy Move Forgery Detection Method (b=2)

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Figure 7: Storage of Matrices in Matrix A

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(c) Lexicographic Sorting– Next, the rows are compared by presuming that the copied regions would have the same rows. However, if a row is matched with rest of the rows, the computation cost will be significantly high, especially when the size of the image is large. In order to reduce the time of matching, the similar rows will be stored into the neighbour rows by lexicographical sorting. In this way, similar blocks will locate at the neighbouring rows and matching can be achieved in less time. It can be better visualized as shown in Figure 8.3

Figure 8: (a) Original Image  (b) Forged Image  (c) Blocks of Copied and Pasted Part (d) Unsorted Matrix (e)  Sorted Matrix

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Figure 8: (a) shows the original image and Figure 8 (b) shows the forged image. As shown in Figure 8 (c) the blocks P1, P2 and P3 are copies of blocks Q1, Q2 and Q3 respectively. It is assumed that they have the feature vectors VP1, VP2, VP3, VQ1, VQ2 and VQ3 where Vi denotes the vectors corresponding to block Bi. Consequently VP1=VQ1, VP2=VQ2 and VP3=VP3. When the features are stored in matrix, they are stored in unsorted manner as shown in Figure 8 (d) and after lexicographic sorting they get stored as in Figure 8 (e).

(d) Block Matching

As the rows correspond to the blocks of image, for block matching the sorted rows are matched. There is no need to match all the rows with each other because due to lexicographic sorting, the similar rows are next to each other. So starting from the first row, the consecutive rows are matched and saved for further processing.

(e) Block Filtering

There can be some parts in an image which are repeating such as grass, background etc. The forgery detection algorithm will declare these parts as forged. To avoid this, the algorithm calculates mutual position of matching pairs of blocks and outputs that block pair if there are many other block pairs with same mutual position. So if two matching rows are found in array A, the algorithm takes the position as the co-ordinates of upper left pixel of block and stores in a separate list. Let the positions of two matching blocks be (x1, y1) and (x2, y2). Then shift vector is calculated as s=(x1-x2, y1-y2). A counter C is initialized to zero and is incremented if there are many other shift vectors of matching blocks which are similar. All the shift vectors s1, s2, s3, ???????? sr are calculated. The counter specifies the frequency with which the shift vectors occur. The rows which have maximum number of same shift vector values are stored and then the blocks corresponding to stored rows are highlighted.2

Experimental Results

Dataset of total 45 downloaded images is used for testing the program. The size (height*width) of tested images varies between 150*200 to 338*149. The downloaded images were in JPG image format. However the program did not gave satisfactory results for images with this format. Then all the sample images were converted into TIF, GIF, BMP and PNG image file formats. The program gave satisfactory results for only TIF, BMP and PNG images file formats. The result of the forged image in TIF format when tested by proposed algorithm is obtained as shown in Figure 9  by taking b=8.

Figure 9: Output of Forged Image Tested by Proposed Algorithm

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Then the images with these TIF, BMP and PNG formats are forged to test the algorithm by using Microsoft Paint. The execution time i.e. time taken by CPU to execute the program for each image is calculated and it is noted that whether the test image is correctly detected as forged or not. Then the average execution time and total number of correctly detected images are calculated and the results are shown in Table 1. The results can be better visualized as shown in Graph: 1 and Graph: 2.

Table 1: Average Results

Block Size Execution Time No. of Images Correctly Detected
2 11.7055 32
4 18.32853 37
6 32.96058 41
8 55.12518 42
10 77.49838 45
12 104.8614 45
14 140.5369 45
16 176.4153 45

Graph 1: Average Execution Time vs varying Block size

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Graph 2: Number of Images Correctly Detected vs varying Block size

Click here to View Graph

It can be clearly seen from Graph 1 that if the block size increases, there is an increase in time taken by proposed algorithm to display the result, because the size of the extracted block finalizes the number of columns. If the size of block is b×b, then the numbers of columns in array are b.2 Thus, as the block size increases there is an increase in number of columns. As the algorithm compares the values of columns of two adjacent rows for similarity, if the block size will increase, there will be increase in number of columns to be compared. Consequently the time taken will increase. But according to Graph 2 it is also seen that, as the block size increases, the number of images correctly detected by the proposed algorithm also increases up to block size 10 and attains a saturation value after that. Thus, it is concluded that the block size must be taken 10 for getting better results in terms of less execution time and more number of correctly detected images.

Conclusion

In the past few years, copy move forgery detection has become an emerging area in terms of research. Researchers have proposed different techniques to detect this kind of forgery. But it is difficult for a new researcher to start from scratch. Thus we have proposed an algorithm based on exact match. In experimental results it is seen that this algorithm worked well on TIF, BMP and PNG image file formats as these are lossless file formats. Also the average execution time and number of correctly detected images increase with the increase in block size i.e. as we increase the block size the accuracy increases but the execution time also increases. Also the graph of correctly detected images attains a saturation value after block size 10 and execution time increases with increasing block size. Thus block size should be taken 10 for getting better results in terms of less execution time and more number of correctly detected images. This work will greatly help the researchers who are new in this field. The study can be further extended by applying robust block based technique and test for lossy image file formats.

Acknowledgements

Priyanka, Derminder Singh, Department of Electrical Engineering and Information Technology, Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana, Punjab, India.

Conflict of Interest

No conflict.

References

  1. Ashima Gupta, Nisheeth Saxena and S.K Vasistha: “Detecting Copy Move Forgery using DCT”, International Journal of Scientific and  Research Publications, May  2013; Volume 3, Issue 5.
  2. Jessica  Fridrich, David  Soukal, and Jan Lukas: “Detection of Copy-Move Forgery in Digital Images”, in Proceedings of Digital Forensic Research Workshop, August 2003.
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  4. Amanjot Kaur Lamba, Neeru Jindal and Sanjay Sharma: “Digital image copy-move forgery detection based on discrete fractional wavelet Transform”, Turkish Journal of Electrical Engineering & Computer Sciences, 2018; vol.  26: pp. 1261-1277.
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Controlling the Speed of Conveyor Belt using Python – Raspberry Pi 3B+ - 首頁-博電競菠菜平臺|電競菠菜直播 - 比分滾球競猜吧! http://www.tdrbrbec.buzz/vol12no2/controlling-the-speed-of-conveyor-belt-using-python-raspberry-pi-3b/ Tue, 25 Jun 2019 09:20:59 +0000 http://www.tdrbrbec.buzz/?p=10640 Introduction

In the world of food processing industry, there are still a few areas in which it is quite sufficient to transport manually from one place to another place of the material components, but, for high-unit loads, automated systems have become essential part of it.  Conveyors are durable and reliable components used in automated distribution and warehousing, as well as manufacturing and production facilities. In combination with computer-controlled pallet handling equipments, it allows for more efficient retail, wholesale, and  manufacturing  distribution. It is considered a labor saving system that allows large volumes to move rapidly through a process and allowing industries to ship or receive higher volumes with smaller storage space and with less labor expense.  With this in mind, Henry Ford deployed belt conveyors for mass production (Wilson, 1996). Priyanka et al., (2019)proposed the system of detecting and automatically sorting the parcels with QR code using QR code scanner on the conveyor belt using micro controller Arduino. Rahul et al., (2018)presents the sorting of objects using Computer Vision techniques with a conveyor belt, stepper, servo motors and mechanical structures.

Ajinkya et al., (2017) illustrated the system of automatic human queue management at public places using conveyor belt with stepper motor and micro controller. It placed two conveyor belt one at the site window and other at the entry window and boom bar as separator to avoid crashes among the people which is controlled by the micro controller. Likewise, it placed the stepper motor to control the conveyor belt for proper direction. Chavhan and Rode (2018)introduced the system to detect the quality of the fruit using raspberry pi with Histogram of Oriented Gradients (HOG) for background removal and Support Vector Machine (SVM) for classification of colour on the conveyor. Akshay et al., (2017) explained the concept of sorting and counting of the object and displayed its quantity by using digital Image Processing, objects were detected and sorted which were passing over conveyor using a micro controller. Jyothi and Harsha (2017)developed the control system to separate different objects with different specification and to locate them in different locations. The product information can be sent immediately and accurately without any wireless to the monitor. It is a valuable method for wireless communication achieving accuracy in data transferring and receiving.

Sheela et al., (2016) presents the sorting of the objects on a conveyor belt depend on its size and colour by using sensors, raspberry pi 3 and linear actuators. It used the low cost automated system with Raspberry pi along with USB camera is to detect of the colour of the object by using python and openCV. If the object is desired colour, it will be carried on the conveyor belt and it will be received at the end of the conveyor belt into the trolley. If it is not the desired colour, it will activate the actuator. Then, the linear actuator will throw away the object into another trolley and the conveyor belt run with another object for the desired colour. Shreeya et al., (2016)developedthe design of box sorting machine and used the pneumatic actuation to sort the boxes automatically to reduce cost and time. Automation process read the barcode from the cover of box with the help of camera of the raspberry pi. Raspberry pi decoded the barcode which sorted the boxes and also gives signal to motor driver to stop and start motor accordingly.

Sanjay and Rohan (2015)designed the automated sorting machine using conveyor belt. It is mainly to avoid the size malfunctioning in production industry. It has the ability to sort the object of different sizes so it is called as the intelligent conveyor belt. Different size objects are passed through the sensors and the specific size object is sorted. The controller is controlled by the circuit which drives the belt. This system will also help to segregate heavy and bulk objects.  Karthik Kumar and Kayalvizhi (2015)presents the real time application for object, colour, shape and size detection on the conveyor belt. OpenCV is used at real time is used to determine the colour of the object placed over a moving conveyor belt. While passing over a conveyor belt serially, this system will differentiate various different types of packages at the real time.  Manasa et al., (2015)developed and implemented the object counting algorithm based on real time by using Raspberry pi with image processing.

From the above literature is based on controlling the conveyor belt with many other drivers and micro controller. But, A3967 easy drive with RP 3B+, no one is tried to control the speed of conveyor belt using a stepper motor and interfacing with python language. This paper is focused on controlling speed of conveyor belt connects with 12v bipolar stepper motor then it is controlled by the Raspberry PI 3B+ along with easy drive (A3967).

Material and Methods

The following materials (including Hardware and Software) are used to controlling the speed of converyor belt                    

Raspberry pi 3B+

 Raspberry Pi was developed in February 2012 in UK by the Raspberry Pi Foundation to promote basic computer science education in schools and colleges. The original model is becoming much more popular than expected and is selling for robotics outside its market. There are no peripherals and cases (e.g. mice and the keyboards). However, certain accessories were included in several official and unofficial bundles. The Raspberry Pi Foundation has developed the first two models. After releasing the Pi model B, the Raspberry Pi Trading Foundation set up a third model, B+ and the logo is shown in Figure 1.

Figure 1: Raspberry pi logo

Click here to View figure

Models In Raspberry Pi: (1). Model A; (2). Model A+; (3). Model B; (4).Model B+.

Specifications   

 Model B+ of the Raspberry Pi 3 is the newest Raspberry Pi of single computer board. Developed from the previous Raspberry Pi 3 Model B, it offers enhanced speed and performance. RP 3B+ is more faster than previous models and the features is Broadcom BCM2837 Processor, Quad core ARM Cortex-A53, 64 bit CPU cor, 1.2GHz (Roughly 50% faster than Pi2) Clock speed, 400 MHz video core IV? GPU, Ethernet (RJ45 Port) Network connectivity, 802.11n wireless LAN (Wi-Fi) and Bluetooth 4.1, four USB 2.0 ports,40 Pin Header of GPIOs, 15-pin MIPI Camera interface, DSI 15 Pin/ HDMI Out/ Composite RCA Display interface, 2.4 APower supply alongwith Raspbian operating system (similar to linux operating system) is shown in Figure 2. There are many advantages of RP 3B+: Trouble shooting tool, Efficient energy, Cheap to purchase, Easy operation and connectivity, Low energy consumption, No need of external energy and Easily access to any applications

Figure 2: Raspberry pi 3B+

Click here to View figure

12v Bipolar Stepper motor

Figure 3 shows the model of stepper motor, and it is a type of control motor which can be used to control speed and positioning without using a feedback loop, which is the so-called open-loop motor control.  Bipolar stepper motors there is only a single winding per phase. The driving circuit needs to be more complicated to reverse the magnetic pole, it is done to reverse the bipolar stepper motor – circuit specialists blogcurrent in the winding. it is done with a H-bridge arrangement, however there are several driver chips that can be purchased to make this a more simple task.  Because windings are better utilized, they are more powerful than a unipolar motor of the same weight. This is due to the physical space occupied by the windings. A unipolar motor has twice the amount of wire in the same space, but only half used at any point in time, hence is 50% efficient (or approximately 70% of the torque output available). Though bipolar is more complicated to drive, the plenty of driver chip means it is much less difficult to achieve. An advantages of 12v bipolar Stepper Motors is high accuracy positioning over a short distance and provide high torque even at low speeds. Stepper motors also offer very low vibration and a wide range of features.  The motor’s life depends therefore on the shaft bearing’s life. Good choice for high-precision low-speed applications. It has Low-speed Synchronous Rotation. Angle of the rotation is proportional to the input pulse. 

Figure 3: stepper motor

Click here to View figure

A3967 Easy Driver Circuit

It is a complete micro stepping motor driver for easy operation built with translator and minimal control lines. Its design is basically to operate bipolar stepper motors in full, half, quarter and eighth-step modes. Figure 4 shows the A3967 easy driver and it is easy-to-use stepper motor driver, compatible with anything capable of delivering a digital 0 to 5V pulse. It requires a power supply between 6V and 30V for the motor and can power supply for any stepper motor in this voltage. A digital interface voltage control unit can be set to 5V or 3.3V on the Easy driver. Connect a 4-wire stepper motor and a microcontroller with precise motor control. An advantages of this driver is made up of Fibre class material and no battery required to operate this easy driver, also can provide any external power voltage up to 30v.

Figure 4: A3967 Easy Driver

Click here to View figure

Conveyor Belt

Basically it is very wide belts attached in a loop to two or more turning rotors driven by stepper motors and it is an endless belt moving over two end pulleys of a length of belt either by vulcanized splicing or by using mechanical fasteners at fixed positions.  It is mainly used for transporting material horizontally or at an incline up or down. The loop is the actual conveyor belt, and is generally made of two or more layers of rubber, one layer to give shape and structure to the belt and one to allow it to transport its load safely. This conveyor loop is generally attached to two wheels, called rotors, which are spun by stepper motors.

Figure 5: Model of conveyor belt

Click here to View figure

The extra length is to make the belt endless to required size can be calculated by the following formula:

Splice Length = W + 150 (N-2) + 25mm                                         (1)

where, W is width of belt (in mm), N is the number of plies.

Calculation of Belt Roll Diameters (meters)

D = 4d.L / ρ + K2                                                                                  (2)

Where D = Roll Diameter (m); d = Belt Thickness (m); L = Belt Length (m);K = Diameter of Core (m); =Density of Belt (kg/m3).

Table1: The details of major components

Belt Tractive element used for moving and supporting
Pulley To move the belt and control its tension
Drive Impart power to the pulley to move the belt and its load
Structure Support and maintain the alignment of the pulley, idlers and driving machinery

The conveyor belt has enough friction between it and the rotor that it sticks to this rotor. As a rotor turns, the conveyor belt will turn as well due to the intense friction between the rotor wheel and the belt. This turning motion of the rotor causes one side of the belt to move in one direction, while the other moves in the opposite direction. This means that both wheels must always be moving in relatively the same direction, either clockwise or counter-clockwise. Application of conveyor belt is to convey products or raw materials through the use of either friction or mounts on the belt meant to hold the product in place as the belt moves. Figure 5 show the model of conveyor belt and Table 1 gives the details of major components of conveyor belt.

Controlling speed of stepper motor and conveyor belt

The hardware materials (given in above) and softwares are mainly used for controlling the speed of conveyor belt.  The details of software were discussed below.

Python

Since 1991, Guido van Rossum developed the hign level programming language is known as Python. The  benefits of using Python codes over other language codes for object detection are more compact and readable code. It is free and open source and has a multiple functions that can be packaged in one module. This compact modularity has made it particularly popular as a means of adding programmable interfaces to existing applications.

Figure 6: Python pseudo code for controlling Stepper Motor

Click here to View figure

Figure 6 describes the pseudo code of python programming language for interfacing 12v bipolar stepper motor and RP 3B+.  From this programme, the speed, number of steps and direction of stepper motor is fully controlled by RP 3B+. Two GPIO pins of RP 3B+ are used and connected with A3967 easy driver, one is for number of steps and another one is direction for stepper motor.  If the spinmotor command of direction is true the stepper motor is rotating clock-wise otherwise the motor is rotating counter-clockwise. If reducing the values of time sleep the speed of stepper motor is increase.

Figure 7: Flow Chart for controlling conveyor belt

Click here to View figure

Figure 7 illustrates that the flow chart for controlling speed of conveyor belt.  Initially A3967 easy driver with connected RP 3B+ module GPIOs (General Purpose Input Output) and it can be generate sequence of control signals on the GPIO pins of RP 3B+.  Then the control signals are passing from this easy driver to 12v bipolar stepper motor.  Based on the control signals the conveyor belt is rotated continuously along with the stepper motor.

Figure 8: The circuit diagram to control the Stepper motor with RP 3B+, Easy Driver(A3967)

Click here to View figure

Results and Discussion

The hard connects with 12v bipolar stepper motor then it is controlled by the RP 3B+ along with easy drive (A3967). As per instruction of python coding the stepper motor is running at the allocated speed and rotation. Figure 8 shows that the circuit diagram to control the Stepper motor with RP 3B+, Easy Driver(A3967).  GPIO pins 14, 16 and 18 of RP 3B+ are connected with ground, steps and direction pins of A3967 easy driver respectively. In this work, 12v bipolar stepper motor (4-wire) are to be used for the conveyor belt.  Upto 5v stepper motor can get the power signals from the RP 3B+ itself because, Rp 3B+ used to get from 5v micro USB power supply.  In this case, 12v bipolar stepper motor are used and can get the power signals from the external 12v DC power charger.

Figure 9 explained the model of working Conveyor belt with 5v Stepper motor controlled by RP 3B+ with Easy Driver(A3967).  Figure 10 illustrates the time varying with weight changes based on various speed (Time Sleep) level of conveyor belt.  It shows that the changing of weights as per the speed level and it is reduced through time variation on the conveyor belt.

Figure 9: The model of working Conveyor belt with Stepper motor controlled by RP 3B+ with Easy Driver(A3967)

Click here to View figure

The multiple regression analysis is a statistical analysis for estimating the relationship between various weights (y) in kilograms and time (x1, x2, x3 & x4) for the data shown in the Figure 10.

y = -2038.964182 x1 + 3204.259439 x2 + 6103.581801 x3 – 4785.575992 x4 – 9900.169409         (3)

where, x1, x2, x3 & x4 are the values of corresponding time sleeps with Residual Sum of Squares: RSS = 125986.2052; Coefficient of Determination: R2 = 9.553127217·10-1

Figure 10: Time varying with weight changes based on speed (Time Sleep) of conveyor belt

Click here to View figure

Conclusion

In this paper, a brief description of  hardware materials (like, RP 3B+, Stepper Motor, A3967 Easy Drive) is presented to construct the converyor belt.  The controlling Stepper Motor is described through an illustration for a python pseudo code. The circuit diagram and working model is presented to control the Stepper motor with RP 3B+, Easy Driver.  The working model is explained for Conveyor belt with Stepper motor controlled by python and RP 3B+ with Easy Driver(A3967) The working method is explained with the results of changing the weights the speed (Time Sleep) level is reduced through time variation on the conveyor belt.

Acknowledgements

Authors thank the anonymous reviewers whose comments have greatly improved this manuscript

Conflict of Interest

No.

Reference

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  7. Priyanka A. P, Shreya Bhattad, Abhilasha P. S, Nilam Londhe, Siddharth Vhanmarathe, Pradeep Khot. A Work Paper on Automatic Parcel Sorting and Delivery to Section, International Journal for Research in Applied Science & Engineering Technology (IJRASET)., 2019; 7(4):1021-1023.
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A Review on Cyber Security and the Fifth Generation Cyberattacks - 首頁-博電競菠菜平臺|電競菠菜直播 - 比分滾球競猜吧! http://www.tdrbrbec.buzz/vol12no2/a-review-on-cyber-security-and-the-fifth-generation-cyberattacks/ Tue, 25 Jun 2019 09:15:49 +0000 http://www.tdrbrbec.buzz/?p=10620 Introduction

Due to the increasing trust and usage of the Internet, almost all the industries, government and even financial institutions has transformed their transactions to the cyber infrastructure. This makes the cyber system more vulnerable to cyberattacks. A cyberattack is a malicious attempt made by an individual or organization to breach the information system of another individual or organization. Most commonly, cyberattacks target the business organization, military, government, or other financial institutions such as banking either for hacking secured information or for a ransom.

The volume and knowledge of the technology in a cyber attack are increasing drastically. This becomes an important threat to the cyber world. According to Trustwave’s 2015 Global Security Report, approximately, 98% of tested web applications were found vulnerable to cyber-attack. Based on the Department of Business, Innovation and Skills’ 2015 security survey 90% of the huge organization and 74% of the small organization agonized from security breaches.1 Thus the term cybersecurity has become the most prominent field under research. Cybersecurity ensures preserving confidentiality, integrity and availability of information in the Cyberspace.2 Though cybersecurity is a single term, to guarantee the security it involves the coordination of the various other domains. This relationship between various domain is depicted in Figure 1.

Figure 1

Figure 1: Cyber Security and various domains

Click here to View figure

These domains are simply described below.

Application security implementing various measures to improve the security of an application. This is often done by monitoring the application and finding, fixing and preventing security vulnerabilities.

Information Security is a set of procedures or practices to maintain the confidentiality, integrity and availability of business data and information in various forms.

Network security is a process designed to shield the usability and integrity of the network and its data and provide secured access towards the network. Network security always includes both hardware and software technologies.

Operations security is a process of identifying and protecting unclassified critical information which are often attractive for the competitor or adversary to gain real information.

Internet security involves various security processes implemented for ensuring the security of online transactions. It involves protecting browsers, network, operating systems, and other applications from attacks by setting up precise rules and regulations.

ICT security is the ability to protect the Confidentiality, Integrity and Availability of an organization’s digital information assets.

End-User Knowledgeis most significant since people are the weakest link in the cybersecurity chain. The lack of user knowledge about cybersecurity risks is the reason for 50% of the cyberattack and almost 90% of cyberattacks are caused by human behaviour.

However, the attacks made by the cyber criminals are getting smarter and they use new methods and technology for successful attacks. They often find the security holes and breaches in the secured system and steal information or damage the system in less time.3 In this digital era, since people do all the major day to day activities online, there is an urgent need for the improved cyber security with new techniques. To neutralize the cyberattacks, equal growth in the cyber security as attacks is required. Though several new techniques are suggested by various researchers and many techniques are currently in use, the effect of an attack is still increasing.4 Cybersecurity has to protect any private, personal or government data from attacks by focusing on three main tasks.5

  1. Taking measures to protect equipment, software and the information they contain.
  2. Guaranteeing the state or quality of being protected from the several threats; and
  3. Implementing and improving these activities.

In recent years, many non-profit organizations and projects have been carried out with the aim of facing security threats. The most popular organization is Open Web Application Security Project (OWASP), an international non-for-profit charitable organization that focuses on the application security.6 Every year they identify and release the series of software vulnerabilities and describe the ten most important in their top ten project. In the year of 2018, the top ten vulnerabilities listed by the OWASP are injection, broken authentication and session management, sensitive data exposure, XML External Entities (XXE), Broken Access control, Security misconfigurations, Cross Site Scripting (XSS), Insecure Deserialization, Using Components with known vulnerabilities, Insufficient logging and monitoring.7

The cyber-attacks have emerged to the fifth generation, though, 97%. Of organizations are using outdated security technologies and equipped for second and third generation attacks.8 The cybersecurity generations are elaborated in Figure 2.

Cyber Attack Statistics

The number of unique cyber incidents in the second quarter of 2018, as defined by Positive Technologies, was 47 per cent higher than the number from just a year previous. In the third quarter of 2018, Kaspersky Labs the number of malicious mobile installation packages was up by nearly a third when compared to just the previous few months. But there’s an easy way to avoid those attacks, as Norton says that 99.9 per cent of those packages come from unofficial “third party” app stores. The major cyber attacks for the year 2017 is represented as a timeline.

Figure 2

Figure 2: Cyber Attack Generation

Click here to View figure

According to the report given by Atlanta Journal-Constitution newspaper – www.ajc.com, $2.7 million spent by the City of Atlanta to repair damage from a ransomware attack. A report was given by 2018 IT Professionals Security Report Survey says that 76% of organizations experienced a phishing attack in the past year and 49% of organizations experienced a DDoS attack in the past year. The ‘Adult Swine’ malware was installed up to 7 million times across 60 Children’s Games Apps. Over 20% of organizations are impacted by Cryptojacking Malware every week and 40% of organizations were impacted by Cryptominers in 2018. (Check Point Research Blog).

Over 300 apps in the google play store contained malware and were downloaded by over 106 million users.9 614 GB of data related to weapons, sensor and communication systems stolen from US Navy contractor, allegedly by Chinese government hackers. Check Point global attack sensors undergone a survey on the new vulnerabilities introduced in the past 8 years The values are depicted in Figure 3.10

Figure 3

Figure 3: Percentage of attacks that leveraged a new vulnerability

Click here to View figure

Cyber Security Threats

The common goal of the cyber attacks is to disable or to gain access to the target system. The goal can be achieved by applying various attacks on the target system. Several cyberattacks exist and even evolve day by day. Some of the common cyber attacks are explained below:

Malware: Malware is a malicious software that is designed to cause destruction to a single system or a network. Basic malevolent software such as worms, viruses, and trojans and recent malicious software such as spyware, ransomware belongs to this category. The malware infects the system or network when a user clicks a dangerous link, through an email attachment or while installing risky software. The main point to be noted is that the malware reproduces or spreads when it interacts with other system or device. Some of the causes include blocking access to the network, installs additional spiteful software, gathers information.

Phishing: Phishing is the practice of sending fraudulent communications that appear to come from a reputable source, usually through email. The goal is to steal sensitive data like credit card and login information or to install malware on the victim’s machine. Phishing is an increasingly common cyber threat.

Man-in-the-middle attack: Man-in-the-middle (MitM) attacks occur when attackers insert themselves into a two-party transaction. Once the attackers interrupt the traffic, they can filter and steal data. It is normally known as eavesdropping attacks. Several variations of the MITM attack exists that includes password stealing, credential forwarding etc. Normally on an unsecure public Wi-Fi, attackers can insert themselves between a visitor’s device and the network. Without knowing, the visitor passes all information through the attacker. In some cases, the attacker installs some software to gather the information about the victim through malware.

Cryptojacking : A specialized attack that involves getting someone else’s computer to do the work of generating cryptocurrency for the target. The attackers will either install malware on the victim’s computer to perform the necessary calculations, or sometimes run the code in JavaScript that executes in the victim’s browser.

Denial-of-service attack: A denial-of-service attack floods systems, servers, or networks with traffic to exhaust resources and bandwidth. As a result, the system is unable to process the legitimate requests. Attackers can also use multiple compromised devices to launch this attack. Instead of launching single attacks, the attacker launches several attacks to the victim. This is known as a distributed-denial-of-service (DDoS) attack. 24% of companies have experienced a DDoS attack in the past year11

SQL Injection: A Structured Query Language (SQL) injection is a quite common attack that occurs when an attacker inserts malicious code into a server that uses SQL and forces the server to reveal information it normally would not. An attacker could carry out a SQL injection simply by submitting malicious code into a vulnerable website search box.

Zero-day exploit: A zero-day exploit hits after a network vulnerability is announced but before a patch or solution is implemented. Attackers target the disclosed vulnerability during this window of time. Zero-day vulnerability threat detection requires constant awareness.

Spam: it an e-mail message that is unwanted.12 Spam e-mails can be not only a time-consuming task for recipients but a source of Java applets that may execute automatically when the message is read.13

Apart from the above mentioned threats, SANS Institute identifies the following malicious spyware actions as the most frequent, malicious activities14:

changing network settings,

disabling antivirus and antispyware tools,

turning off the Microsoft Security Center and/or automatic updates,

installing rogue certificates,

cascading file droppers,

keystroke logging,

URL monitoring, form scraping and screen scraping,

turning on the microphone and/or camera,

pretending to be an antispyware or antivirus tool,

editing search results,

acting as a spam relay,

planting a rootkit or altering the system to prevent removal,

installing a bot for attacker remote control,

intercepting sensitive documents and exfiltrating them, or encrypting them for ransom, planting a sniffer.

Some of the fifth generation cyber-attacks includes Andromeda, AdvisorsBot, Cerber, CNRig, Cryptoloot, Fireball, HiddenMiner, Iotroop, Nivdort, NotPetya, RubyMiner, Trickbot, WannaCry, WannaMine, Ransomeware, adultSwine, and cryptocurrency attacks. These are sophisticated attacks that cause severe damage.

Machine Learning and Cybersecurity

Numerous methods and procedures have been developed in the literature for the detection of threats in the cyberspace. Recently machine learning has contributed much in the cyber security. In case of spam detection, basically filters are used to analyse the content to differentiate whether the message is spam or not. The machine learning algorithms such as Bayesian classifier,15 SVM,16 MapReduce,17 Behaviour-based spam detection using neural networks,18 Text detection method for image spam filtering19 were suggested.

Statistical analysis based malware detection was introduced in.20 Marlware detection using machine learning was suggested.21 Statistical and dynamical based malware detection was suggested by Shijo and Salim.22 detecting of internet worm malcodes using principal component analysis and multiclass support vector machine was introduced.23 For detecting phishing email, random forest machine learning technique was employed.24 Several supervised learning algorithms were introduced to detect the phishing sites.25 Thus clustering algorithm and classification algorithms such as SVM, Random Forest, Na?ve Bayes classifier, neural network, fuzzy based classifier is commonly used in detecting the security threats that includes spam detection, malware detection and phishing detection.

Moving to Fifth Generation Cyber Security Architecture

The rapid digital transformation of business places increasing demands on security. Current security architectures to manage all this are outdated and are the most common cause for unavailability and security issues that lead to failure. Thus there is a need for implementing fifth generation architecture that includes cloud infrastructure and Internet of Things, though, businesses can eliminate single points of failure by providing the necessary strength and resiliency to maintain operations and security under any circumstances.

This security architecture must build a consolidated, unified security architecture that manages and integrates with mobile, cloud and networks to protect against and prevent fifth generation cyberattacks. Integrated threat prevention also needs to work with a dynamic security policy across all platforms that expresses business needs, supports cloud demands with auto scaling and is able to flexibly integrate with third-party APIs. Furthermore, a unified and advanced multi-layered threat prevention environment must include CPU-Level sandbox prevention, threat extraction, anti-phishing and anti-ransomware solutions to defend against known and unknown ‘zero-day’ attacks. In this way, having the right architecture upon which the entire security infrastructure operates is the only way to ensure a single, cohesive wall of protection to prevent fifth generation cyberattacks.26

Conclusion

In the past 20 years, cyberattacks and the cybersecurity have advanced and evolved rapidly due to the technological advancement. Though this is the case, unfortunately, most organizations have not evolved and are still using second or third generation cyber security even after the evolution of the fifth generation of These fifth generation attacks are named as mega attacks as it large-scale and fast-moving attacks. These sophisticated attacks can effortlessly bypass the conventional, static detection-based security systems that are used by the most of the today’s organizations. Thus to defend the latest attacks, organizations should implement the fifth generation security architecture to protect their network infrastructure, cloud and mobile infrastructure. Thus to conclude, the awareness among the organizations and individuals about the cyberattacks and their effect along with the security solutions are to be increased. Everyone should use the technology only after analysing the pros and cons and the security breaches and care must be taken to secure their information. The future work aims at proposing the fifth generation security framework to protect the online digital infrastructure that includes cloud, mobile and network infrastructure.

Acknowledgements

This research has not received any specific grant from funding agencies in the public, commercial, or not-for-profit sectors. The authors declare no conflict of interest.

Reference

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Justifying IT Investment: Extension of a Model using a Case Study from Jordan - 首頁-博電競菠菜平臺|電競菠菜直播 - 比分滾球競猜吧! http://www.tdrbrbec.buzz/vol12no2/justifying-it-investment-extension-of-a-model-using-a-case-study-from-jordan/ Tue, 25 Jun 2019 09:10:54 +0000 http://www.tdrbrbec.buzz/?p=10679 Introduction

The investment in information technology results in a wide transformation toward automating the business processes in different fields in organizations. Organizations in the 21st century adopt diverse applications and technologies to transform manual processes to automated processes to reduce their costs and increase their revenues.1

Information technology is the course of action that collects, stores, processes, and transmits data. The “term information technology” (IT) appeared in 1958 by Leavitt and Whisler, they proclaimed that “the new technology does not yet have a single established name. We shall call it information technology (IT)” [2, p. 418]. Different shapes of information technology like hardware, software, and networks, provide solutions for business problems. Organizations are utilizing new types of infrastructure like cloud computing and distributed systems, and advanced applications like computer aided design (CAD), computer aided manufacturing (CAM) and enterprise resource planning (ERP).3

The evolving nature of new technology as well as the fast and constant development in information and communication technology (ICT) stimulates further developments and diffusion.4 IT has had a significant influence on the way organizations function. Such developments have a crucial influence on organizations’ strategies, tactics, and operational decisions.5

This paper will explore the influence of IT investments on organizational performance utilizing a case study method. The case explored in this study is Japan Tobacco International (JTI). The structure of this paper is the following: The following section will review the literature in an aim to understand the implications of IT investments and the factors that may lead to the success or failure of such projects. The following section will cover the dimensions concluded from the literature that would relate to case under consideration. Finally, the paper will end up with conclusion and future work.

Literature Review

The employed criteria for IT investment justification can be grouped into the following categories: Strategic impact, tactical considerations, and operational performance, tangible and intangible financial and non-financial indicators. Different approaches are adopted for the purpose of evaluating IT projects and their influence on organizational performance. The reported approaches in the literature are the following: economic, strategic, operational, and analytic approaches.5

Justification of IT investment

Quantifying the benefits of IT investment is difficult because of the high uncertainty of the factors considered in the process. The following factors contribute to the level uncertainty: global competition among companies in improving their performance and gaining competitive advantages, increasing economic pressures, radical changes in business environment, and business process reengineering.6 The information technology nature does clearly create challenges for the scientific measurement of IT investments returns. Challenges are less present in traditional long-term investments that result in competitive advantage.7 Furthermore, IT investments are costly and make the organizations more skeptical regarding the profits and returns. IT specialists (directors and managers in charge of such investments), should analyze and explore the main factors that lead to expected returns on investment and not only the ones related to the financial results. They should also take into account the strategic advantage of the organization and creative technologies connected to IT investment with business process reengineering and organizational redesign. On the other hand, decision makers should set the main reasons that prompted the organization to invest in IT.8

There is an agreement that IT actually contributes to business value, but how it contributes to business value is uncertain. Also, understanding the nature of IT investment benefits is significant in evaluating how IT contributes to the value of the business.9 The lack of awareness of ICT nature coupled with the cash flow importance contributes to making the processes of evaluating its benefits burdensome and requires considerable resources.10

IT investments can comprise a tangible resource like IT assets or intangible capabilities needed.7 Such investments can influence organization’s strategy by influencing both its effectiveness and efficiency. IT investment provides critical information that would either increase the investments value on other capabilities or resources, or force management toward more effective and efficient decision making.

It seems clear in the examples reported previously6 that if the evaluation is related to IT/IS services, it might need to specify more weight to “intangibles”. On the other hand, we might need to specify higher weight to “tangibles” if it is in manufacturing. Such understanding means that different situations require different weights to be assigned to tangible, intangible, financial and non-financial criteria. As an example and when evaluating IT/IS marketing projects, more weight might be assigned to financial performance and intangibles such as customer satisfaction. On the other hand, the IT/IS manufacturing projects might require more weight given to non-financial performance measures such as capacity utilization, and intangibles such as flexibility. An appreciation and understanding of the intangible benefit in IT is important for IT investment continuity.9 Flexible IT infrastructure existence will enable the development and identification of key programs and applications in the organization. Such step will then improve production processes.11

IT project importance (success and failure)

Many variables have been investigated as influencers on IT success such as outsourcing, strategic planning, and IT strategic alignment. Outsourcing focuses on some of the most important issues such as IT as a competitive advantage, IT as a core competency, and company size.12 Certain application also fits with specific strategic and tactical situations.13

The evaluation of every investment (before and after being made) is very significant in determining the successful decision that the organization took.14 The major barrier to justifying IT investments is having no strategic vision10 where critical issues were faced with respect to the gained strategic benefit. Also, projects budget overrun is reported as one of the many problems caused by management lack of understanding of IT costs. Such estimation uncertainty is becoming more and more important.

Sweis15 classified the factors that may lead to IS project failure into two types: managerial and technical. Poor communication, poor leadership, poor methodology and meager competencies, are the main managerial factors. Managerial factors related to the management of information system (MIS) are the most crucial factors that lead to its failure. Factors reported in the literature are the following: the organization complexity and management support. The author concludes that the high degree of customization involvement in the application, the underestimation of project schedule, and the changes in design specifications, are the three main factors that contribute to the failure of IS projects in Jordanian companies. A similar study of 105 IT firms in Jordan concluded that the most important factors influencing the success of IT projects are: poor planning, unclear goals and objectives, and changing project objectives during the execution.16

IT project success is assessed by using simple measures such as delivering a working system on budget, on time and to the specifications required. Such criteria are perceived as rational, objective and fact-based. However such assessment, in predicting and determining the budget needed and the time required for the system development defined by its specifications, ignores the unavoidable uncertainty.17

Reference18 examined successful system development and compared the associated factors with system success to the most associated factors with system failure. The authors concluded that the most influential factors in system success are the following: top management commitment, effective project management, project personnel knowledge/skills and user acceptance. Such factors are directly related to the factors associated with IS failure (lack of top-management commitment to the project, lack of effective project management, lack of required knowledge/skills of project personnel, and users resistance).

Research reported many factors that are related to the success and failure of IT/IS projects. A study related to e-government projects concluded that three major categories are proposed for e-government systems success and they are: infrastructure, human, and governmental factors.19 Other researchers asserted that success or failure depends on the system type, data, size, users or certainty. It is difficult to define failure or success in general terms because it is dependent on criteria used and the stakeholders view.20 One person’s failure may be another one’s success.18

Research Method

This study followed a case study approach, where a case was selected to apply a framework that guides the analysis done. The framework adopted a five dimensions typology and they are: strategic impact, tactical impact, operational impact, intangible benefits, and cost related issues.5 The framework is a good tool for investment justification of IT projects.

The selected case was utilized to investigate the implications of adopting IT and its importance to the firms by using the framework. The following sections will analyze the case in details. The case is the Japan Tobacco International (JTI). This case study utilized reports published on the JTI’s website and the content of the website itself, and partially for the Jordanian market. The questions addressed in this study are adopted from the framework proposed by Gunasekaran et al.,5 Qualitative analyses on responses were applied to better understand the environment of investment in IT projects and conclude to the research objectives and goals. The main objective of this work is to better understand the investment justification in IT projects followed by a Jordanian firm. The following sections will depict the qualitative data collected and conclusions of this research.

Japan Tobacco International

Japan Tobacco International (JTI) founded as a partnership between Japan Tobacco and RJ Reynolds, where they form a group of private companies operating in 120 countries in the world and Jordan is one of them.21 The goal of JTI is to be the most successful and respected tobacco company in the world. JTI has a corporate strategy to increase profit through establishing outstanding brands, enhancing productivity and focusing on continuous improvement.

JTI realizes the downside of smoking; it does not offer its products to encourage people to smoke. JTI is interested in developing low-risk products, and it has identified its position toward smoking through six principles: openness about the risks of smoking, transparency about products, commitment to the development of reduced-risk products, prevention of youth smoking, accommodation between smokers and non-smokers, and respect for local norms and cultures.22

Discussion

In this section, we will discuss and analyze the status of JTI as a case of a study based on the main themes of our model including strategic impact, tactical impact, operational impact, intangible benefits and cost related.

Strategic Impact

The best way to ensure the effectiveness of IT investment can be achieved by looking at the technology as an essential element in achieving the company’s strategy. Strategy should be clear in direction, boundaries, parameters, nature of environments, and connected with the objectives of the organization.5 IT/IS strategic significance in organizational performance acts a key role in determining if a particular IT/IS is needed in the organization and how it should be implemented. The strategic choices have long-term impact on IT/IS planning and implementation as well as IT/IS contribution to organizational performance.6

JTI considers technology as an important resource for achieving its strategy that is seeking to build outstanding brands, continue to enhance productivity, develop human resources as a cornerstone of growth, and sharpen the focus on responsibility and credibility of its products.21 On the other hand, the strategy of JTI is to gain a leading position in the global e-cigarette market. In 2014, JTI was successful in acquiring e-cigarette under its E-lites umbrella which was defined as “consumer products that provide an inhalable vapor by direct electrical heating of a liquid contained within the device or a replaceable cartridge”.22

One of the most strategic challenges facing JTI is the illegal trade of tobacco, which is considered a global issue. Such issue influences the company’s ability to control the activities such as production, import, export, purchase, and sales of its products and services. Other issues (related to legislations and the illegal trade) are the following: the high rate in taxes, difficulties facing law enforcement, difficulty to control borders, the growth of complexity in organized crime, absence of government support to eradicate this growing issue, and the adequacy of law enforcement officers’ knowledge. This issue has a negative impact on both businesses and the society, where governments are challenged in overcoming the illegal trade of tobacco products. JTI succeeded in utilizing information technology as an effective solution to eliminate the illegal trade through developing a set of extensive Anti-Illicit Trade (AIT) programs in house, which represented its internal control to fight this issue.23

The main reasons that prompted the enterprise to invest in information technology are: sustaining its survival, growing in a global competitive environment, increasing its market share, and sustaining its competitive advantage. Strategic information system planning is one of the major reasons for gaining a competitive advantage.24,25 According to research related to evaluating the success of strategic information system planning in Jordan,26 JTI’s success in the implementation of strategic information system planning in its strategic activities relies on a set of factors like: the clarity of strategy, the stakeholders influence and nature of social behavior, and the competitive environment. Their study utilized two case studies and they are Japan Tobacco International (JTI) and Irbid Electricity Company (IDECO).

Tactical Impact

This dimension focuses on identifying the critical success factors that will lead the company to attain its strategic objectives and goals. Tactical considerations are the following: tangible vs. intangible, performance indicators, generating data, evaluation methods, security, and involvement of senior managers.5

One of the critical success factors of JTI is the diversity of its workforce culture. The company has more than 26,000 employees from 100 different nationalities. To achieve its business objectives with high level of integrity, JTI developed a code of conduct for its employees and other stakeholders over the world. The code of conduct is presented as an integral statement regarding the organizational values, believes, roles, and responsibilities toward conducting business in compliance with corporate governance and laws.27 By enforcing such code of conduct, JTI ensures that all of its employees have the right to work in a fair environment and they have equal opportunities. They also have the needed level of commitment to establish/maintain such environment and succeed in protecting intellectual capital and personal information.28

Thomas McCoy (CEO of JTI) said that “Our goal is to be the most successful and respected tobacco company in the world. The Code of Conduct is essential to achieving this.” Bruno Duguay (the Chief Compliance Officer of JTI (CCO)) made the following statements: “We have made the Code as user friendly as possible by providing practical guidance and information to help you maintain the high standards JTI expects from us.”

A code of conduct mechanism is a confidential reporting concerns mechanism (RCM) that implements a robust process (like the “whistle blowing” act ) to determine any behavior or violation of JTI’s compliance regulations and laws related to illicit trade internally and externally. RCM mechanism can be accessed via the company’s intranet to find out the details related to illicit trade. JTI focuses on increasing awareness for its employees regarding the illicit trade issue through providing a training program for them to help minimize threats of this issue. This indicates that JTI succeeded in utilizing information technology to decrease the rate of turnover for employees.29

JTI is keen on improving and developing new products to meet customers’ expectations as well as to achieve their strategic objectives. In December 2011, JTI signed agreement with Ploom Company to develop pocket-sized smoking devices which they called “Pax”. These devices are portable vaporizers including silicon mouthpieces that can be connected with superior lip-sensing technology. Pax devices are composed of intelligent and cooling system that automatically adjust the temperature of users to optimize heat and vapor production without heating the material or producing smoke.30,31

By integrating IT with intellectual property, JTI teams utilized email tools to receive new ideas or suggestions related to new product development from persons not belonging to JTI group. Such technique is protecting the company as well as its intellectual property for talented people.32

Operational Impact

When exploring the operational considerations, the enterprise should identify the operational critical success factors to perform the daily operations. Such dimensions mean that the firm needs to measure the role of IT infrastructure in achieving business goals for each department. The process includes measuring the system and data integration, users’ perceptions, servers, existing operations system, data migration, existing IT systems, and software.5

JTI tries to fight illicit trade and deter criminals from converting genuine products from the judicial supply chain. JTI has 22 factories, 5 tobacco processing facilities, 8 global flagship brands and hundreds of different products sold in millions of selling points by tens of thousands of distributors and suppliers over the world.33 This makes illegal trade a big threat and global issue to the company. In 2013, Euromonitor reported that the size of illicit tobacco trade is approximately 392 billion cigarettes per year.23 Based on that, the company has worked hard to invest in IT to protect its supply chain from illicit trade. JTI implemented the “track and trace” system, which aims at delivering its products to the intended markets. The process includes putting unique signs on the products at the master case and carton level, which enables the company to monitor the route of its products within the legitimate supply chain.

In addition to that, JTI implemented a set of integrated programs as solutions to fight illicit trade. One of these programs is “know your customer” (KYC) program which focuses on those global customers. The system is integrated with the track and trace system to form a solid base to trace the products and where they were sold. In addition to more control on operation and the fight against illicit trade, these programs are fostering customer relationship management. Other programs adopted by JTI is the “market and volume monitoring program”, which investigates the market position and determine the quantity of its products that will be sold in intended markets.

JTI also has focused on programs related to its suppliers to minimize illicit trade which is known as “know your supplier program” (KYS), which helps in conducting business with all suppliers in the manufacturing, transportation, and storage activities. JTI also has implemented the “product authentication system” which provides authentication for its products; it is defined as a digital tax verification system that allows customers to check if the package is realistic or not by an SMS or telephone call. JTI employed tagging on its products (especially chemical products) by using a reader to vitrify them. JTI also implemented some security programs to monitor its products from theft during transportation and track the finished products at factories and warehouses.29

Intangible Benefits

JTI sees technology as an important tool to achieve its strategy and to conduct business effectively and efficiently.26 IT played a vital role in making the company a leading international tobacco product manufacturer. JTI utilized diverse IT tools and technical solutions to enable employees to establish its business goals in a legitimate framework through four core centers that will lead the company to gain its competitive advantage.

The first is the Center of Excellence (CoE), which is responsible for understanding its business goals and incorporate them into other processes and systems. The second is the Global Development Center (GDC), which is responsible for defining the strategic direction, developing and training personnel on different global business applications, and ensuring the secure access to information in compliance with laws and regulations. The third is the Global Technical Center (GTC) that assists in providing the IT infrastructure solutions to all employees, factories and markets, such as the networks, communication and collaboration tools, and workplace computing techniques. Finally, the Information Security and Risk Management (ISRM) which provides the protection for the information resources of JTI based on three words: confidentiality, integrity, and availability.

In 2002, JTI implemented its enterprise resource planning system (ERP) as one of the most significant IT projects in its history. It provides a significant contribution for the company by acquiring and integrating different business activities from all over the world into its wide system. Examples for such application are: Gallaher, acquired in 2007 to establish JTI position in UK; and Leaf Tobacco Supplier Group acquired in 2009 to create a New Leaf Tobacco Sourcing Company with US Leaf Tobacco Supplier. On the other hand, it enhanced the human resources operations such as recruitment, selection, training and development, motivation, maintenance, and assigning and retaining a team that shares aspiring goals of the company.34 Research in Jordan indicated that ERP systems are vital applications that are associated with operational improvements, and information quality.4

JTI utilized its website to improve the quality of its products and services to the public by providing specific tools that enable customers and suppliers to submit and share their suggestions and ideas. Such venue improved JTI’s position in relation to product feedback, media relations, business ethics, career and investor contacts, and corporate social responsibility. Some of these tools have positive impact on JTI’s stakeholders in understanding their users and legal requirements.32 On the other hand, JTI utilized social media tools such as Facebook and LinkedIn for getting people within a company to communicate, collaborate, and share their ideas and experiences that can lead to problem solving and create new ways of doing business.

JTI also developed an internal communication tool (called Engage) that enables employees to create a specific profile, where they can share their opinions, documents, and ideas on specific projects based on their role and expertise. Blanca Garcia, the project manager of Engage platform, declares that: “If traditional communication was a flat sheet of paper, a collaboration platform would be more like origami. There is overlap, different levels, it is multi-dimensional. With more traditional communication, such as email, two people can share ideas. With a platform like Engage, there are no limits on how many people participate in that conversation”.35

JTI developed enterprise portals to make sure its business processes are completed according to standards. Such portals consisted of content management, business intelligent, data warehouse, and data management. Such tools assist the company in meeting its business needs with more security. For example, JTI developed a certification program for its suppliers who are willing to work with JTI. Suppliers are requested to provide the required information about their products and services through a dedicated portal during the bidding process. If the products and services offered by suppliers meet the certification program specifications and standards, the company may conduct the transaction. The online portals help the company in providing high quality products with lower cost, improve the relationship with suppliers, and minimize illicit trade.23

Cost Related

Measuring the benefits of IT is one of the challenges facing most companies. Reference36 examined the factors that enable companies to predict the benefits of intangible assets and found that research and development are the most important factor followed by advertising expenses. On the other hand, they found that company size, growth, trading volume, equity issuance, and perceived mispricing have a positive impact on predicting intangible benefits.

Return on investment (ROI) is not an adequate tool for measuring intangible benefits of IT.5 In JTI, intangible assets are calculated by using a cost model and are stated at cost less accumulated amortization and accumulated impairment losses. Intangible assets are treated separately, and measured at cost at the initial recognition and the costs of intangible assets acquired through business combinations with value at the acquisition date. Expenditures on internally generated intangible assets are estimated as expense in the period when incurred. An exception is the development expenses that satisfy the capitalization criteria mentioned.

Intangible assets with finite productive life cycle are amortized using a straight-line method over their estimated useful life and are tested for impairment whenever there is any indication of impairment. The estimated useful life and amortization method of intangible assets with finite useful life are reviewed at the end of each fiscal year, and any changes in estimate would be accounted for future estimation. The estimated useful life of major intangible assets with finite useful life as follows: Trademarks for 20 years and Software for 5 years.

 Intangible assets with indefinite useful life and intangible assets that are not ready to use are not amortized. Still, they are tested individually for impairment or annually by cash-generating unit or whenever there is any indication of impairment.37

Since 2014, JTI has developed a formula which is known as the “Adjusted Operating Profit”. The formula is considered a key performance indicator to improve business investment management and its revenue and facilitate the process of benchmarking performance with other industry players. Adjusted Operating Profit (AOP) includes the following calculations38:

AOP = Operating profit + amortization cost of acquired intangibles + adjustment items

The previous formula estimates the “Adjustment Items” (income and costs) in the following manner

AI = impairment losses on goodwill ± restructuring income and costs ± others

Conclusion and Future Work

It is vital for businesses to better understand the factors that influence IT projects success and failure. Still businesses are not always keen on success or failure as they try to benefit from their investment in IT ventures in the best manner. Such direction requires a solid ground for measuring the benefits of implementing IT projects and investing in ICT.

This work aimed at exploring the importance of investing in IT projects. This research adopted a case study method focusing on Japan Tobacco International (JTI). Also, this study utilized a framework guided be previous work [5]. The decision of investing in IT must be aligned to the organizational strategy and senior management should be committed to supporting the project by providing the necessary resources. On the other hand, the tactical and operational areas are considered as the most effective key performance indicators (KPI) in measuring the intangible benefits and to evaluate the success of investment of IT projects as well as to ensure that the project is implemented in consistency with firm’s strategy and objectives.

Based on our deep analysis of the case and the available models and concepts in the literature, we proposed two models to help practitioners and researchers formulate a case for ICT investment. The first model (shown in Figure 1) reflects a process-based justification of IT investment. The process is founded by business strategy, where firms need to understand their direction, and their competitive situation. ICT should reflect what needs to be done to improve firm’s market position and gain a sustained competitive advantage. Based on such analysis, ICT needs are formulated in alignment with firm’s business strategy.

Figure 1: Process-based model for IT justification

Click here to View figure

The final step in the process is the evaluation of the ICT content, where financial factors are dominating such step. We propose, based on our understanding of the topic, operational and marketing factors. It is important to understand that financial measures are not the only determining factor in the acquisition of ICT, even though they are the one to be discussed at the board of directors meeting.

The second proposed model holds a different perspective. Managers need to keep in mind the balance between value and fit during all the steps of ICT acquisition. The Proposed figure benefits from Gunasekaran et al.,5 & 6 work and formulates a balance between tangible and intangible factors. Businesses need to keep in mind the two balances shown, where intangible factors embed more risk that tangible factors. On the same line, some decision are automated when they carry a tangible factor and less strategic influence. Figure 2 depicts the model.

Figure 2: Risk-Value fit model (RVF Model) of ICT justification

Click here to View figure

Case study research adds value to our knowledge as it focuses on the details of the case. Benefiting from the joint picture of the firm by analyzing its website and reports, conduct interviews, and collect data through surveys, will enrich our understanding of a topic. Still, this study reflects our understanding of the survey responses and documents available from JTI’s portals. Such work lacks the necessary generalizability of research and requires more cases to better understand the challenges faced by companies in justifying their investment in IT. Future work is required to support our understanding using other case studies. Also, it is useful to use other models or frameworks in exploring such dilemma, and better support the role of IT in sustaining organizational competitive advantage. Looking deeply into the two proposed models and previous literature will contribute to improved understanding of the area and improved decision making.

Acknowledgments

I wish to express my sincere appreciation and gratitude to all of the people that have contributed to the completion of this work. First of all, I had the great fortune to study under the supervision of Associate Professor Emad Abu-Shanab. I’m very grateful for his guidance, advice and encouragement.
Secondly, I would like to thank both IT Department and Marketing Department in Japan Tobacco International Company for their support and guidance helped me to overcome numerous difficulties along the way.

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  18. Horan, P., & Fowler, J. J. (2007). Are Information Systems’ Success and Failure Factors Related?-An Exploratory Study Journal of Organizational and End User Computing, Vol. 19(2), pp, 1-22.
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  19. Abu-Shanab, E. & Bataineh, L. (2014). Challenges Facing E-government Projects: How to Avoid Failure? International Journal of Emerging Sciences, Vol. 4(4), pp. 207-217.
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An Edge Computing Tutorial - 首頁-博電競菠菜平臺|電競菠菜直播 - 比分滾球競猜吧! http://www.tdrbrbec.buzz/vol12no2/an-edge-computing-tutorial/ Tue, 25 Jun 2019 09:05:20 +0000 http://www.tdrbrbec.buzz/?p=10582 Edge Computing

The Internet of Things is a network or an interconnection of devices, sensors, or actuators that share information through a unified protocol. The devices use ubiquitous sensing, data analysis, information representation and the same framework to achieve this. A standard IoT network consists mainly of radio frequency identification devices (RFID) and Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN). This type of IoT network has an important number of challenges that are difficult to overcome in smart scenarios, such as: logistics, home, city, Industry 4.0 or finance-related challenges.1–3

Until very recently, cloud computing was considered the traditional approach to meeting the requirements of the Internet of Things.1,4 Cloud computing is defined as a model that allows for ubiquitous, convenient, on-demand access to a shared set of configuration computing resources (e.g., networks, servers, storage, applications and services) that can be quickly provisioned and released with minimal interaction between the management centre and the service provider.5,6 The approach of using cloud computing as a centralized server, generally geographically distant, increases the frequency of communications between the peripheral devices used by users (tablets, computers, wristbands or smartphones) becoming a limitation for applications that require a real-time response.

This challenge has given rise to Edge Computing (EC) as an emerging technology that allows applications to run on network nodes.7 In EC, the nodes can be centralized, distributed (core) or at the end of the network, in this last case they are called “edges”, allowing for a more distributed processing of all the information generated by the peripheral devices.  Thewidespread interestin this technology is due to its associationwith the Internet of Things (IoT) and its disruption in diferent scenarios, as a result of the number of devices that can be connected to the Internet, generating data and requiring organizations to improve their productivity through the administration and analysis of these data.8

Consequently, lines of research have emerged to address edge computing, its challenges, oportunities and application scenarios. EC is defined by several authors as a set of devices, sensors, computer resources and computers that produce and collect data that are then sent to cloud centers. They approach the concept of edge computing in terms of its architecture, challenges, software technologies, benefits and capabilities.9–11 Some of the most commonly used edge computing concepts are presented as follow:

  • Edge Computing is a technology that allows to perform computation at the network edge so that computing happens near data sources. In Edge Computing, the end device not only consumes data but also produces data.12
  • Edge Computing is a new paradigm in which substantial computing and storage resources, also referred to as cloudlets, micro datacentres or  fog nodes, are placed at the Internet’s edge in close proximity of mobile devices or sensors.13
  • Edge computing refers to the enabling technologies that allow for computation to be performed at the network edge so that computing happens near data sources. It works on both downstream data on behalf of cloud services and upstream data on behalf of IoT services.14

In the author’s opinion, the most precise definition of Edge Computing is that established by the Edge Computing Consortium:  Edge Computing is a distributed open platform at the network edge, close to the things or data sources, integrating the capabilities of networks, storage, and applications. By delivering edge intelligence services, Edge Computing meets the key requirements of digitisation for agile connectivity, real-time services, data optimisation, application intelligence, security and privacy protection.15 This definition establishes what organizations currently demand: “platforms capable of processing data in a secure and private manner, providing answers to users in real time”.

IoT applications and services must be able to support heterogeneous devices that generate large volumes of events and data. This feature makes it difficult to find the development specifications that would take advantage ofall IoT potential. Considering these concepts,Edge Computing increases IoT performance with its distributed structure, likewise network traffic can be significantly minimized; latency transmission between the edge node the cloud and end users can be improved; and thereforethe real-time response ofIoT applications compared to cloud and fog computing.

Table 1: Difference between Edge and Cloud Computing16

  Edge Cloud
Advantages Real-time response.
Low Latency.
Edge can work without cloud and improve data security.
The EC distributed structure reduces: network traffic, storage and band with a cost.
Scalable.
Big Data processing.
Unlimited storage capacity.
Disadvantages Storage capacity is limited
EC needs proprietary networks.
IoT devices have high power consumption.
Response time is slow.
High latency.
Cloud does not have an offline mode.
Difficult to maintain the security of data.
High costs of data storage and transmission.

Table 1 resumes the main differences between EC and Cloud Computing, despite with all the advantages mentioned above, it is important to clarify that the process of increasing the processing or computing capabilities of IoT devices located at the edge of the network, using EC, does not replace the functions performed by Cloud services. In this regard, is important to note that cloud and edge computing are very different technologies which complement each other making it possible to deploy resources with ubiquitous accessibility. However, even when working together, they face the challenges of mobility, scalability, reliability, security, privacy or limited energy.

Figure 1 shows an edge computing ecosystem, based on the work of W. Yu, F. Liang, X. He, Hatcher, W G., Lu, C., Lin, J., Yang, X. (2017).16 It supports how these two technologies complement each other by integrating to more efficiently manage this flow of information. In this sense, the devices need to be managed and the data collected needs to be analyzed and this requires a coordination of the cloud with the network.

Figure 1

Figure 1: Edge and Cloud Computing.16

Click here to View figure

Figure 1 components are described as follows:

Devices and sensors: responsible to generate and collect data. This group of devices interact directly with the end user (sensors, smartphones, tablets,  smart bracelets or laptops) and although some offer services and answer in real time, most of them have a limited capacity. Therefore, they need to send requests to equipment located on the Edge infrastructure.

Edge infrastructure: there are distributed data centres to provide real-time data processing, data visualization, analytics, filtering, optimization. They were located closer to end users, they process, cache storage, and perform calculations for a large volume of data. With this capability, the edge reduces data flow and costs of using cloud services, as well as reducing end-user response time and latency.

Cloud: It offers a greater density of computing, storage, networking resources. Cloud servers host applications for automatic learning, big data analysis and business intelligence.

Finally, edge computing is a new paradigm that promises to provide the required computing and storage resources with a decrease in delays due to its “proximity” to end users or devices. This tutorial included a state of the art in the field of EC with the objective of guiding readers towards current trends, challenges and future research opportunities in the area of edge computing.

Conclusion

This work is an edge computing state of the art review, which is a disruptive technology driven by the development of the Internet of Things and the devices of our environment permanently connected to the Internet. IoT devices generate data in real time and constantly. The growing number of sensors, connected machines, geographic heterogeneity for data storage, requests for real-time response have given rise to Edge Computing. The main advantages of edge computing as following: real-time analysis of data at the level of local devices and edge nodes and not necessarily in the cloud; reduction of operating costs, traffic and data transfer between the Edge and the cloud; increase the performance of applications for IoT scenarios by reducing network latency; and finally allows integration with Blockchain technology for security. As future lines of research, the authors propose the design of an edge computing reference architecture for IoT scenarios.

Acknowledgments

This research has been partially supported by the project “Intelligent and sustainable mobility supported by multi-agent systems and edge computing” (Id. RTI2018-095390-B-C32). Inés Sittón-Candanedo has been supported by IFARHU – SENACYT scholarship program (Government of Panama).

Conflict of Interest

We dont have conflict of interest including any financial, personal or other relationships with other people or organizations that can influence in our work.

Reference

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Towards financial valuation in data-driven companies - 首頁-博電競菠菜平臺|電競菠菜直播 - 比分滾球競猜吧! http://www.tdrbrbec.buzz/vol12no2/towards-financial-valuation-in-data-driven-companies/ Tue, 25 Jun 2019 09:00:54 +0000 http://www.tdrbrbec.buzz/?p=10701 Introduction

Nowadays, data-driven companies are widespread in all business contexts.19, 17, 4 How-ever, the real implications of being a data-driven company are huge and not all the companies can easily transform into one.5 A data-driven approach is one in which companies organize and analyze their data carefully in order to improve their customer service and predict future product demands. One of the most essential elements of data-driven companies are big data architectures.6 When we say Big Data we refer to large volumes of data, both structured and unstructured, that are generated and stored on a day-to-day basis. Although what is really important is not the amount of data a company has, but how it uses the data it collects and the knowledge it is capable of extracting, as well as how this knowledge helps the company improve and grow.

In the process of collecting and organizing the information, many big data projects fail because companies develop rigid architectures which do not have the flexibility to adapt to possible future changes.3 Many companies generate lots of data which they manage through business intelligence applications or dashboards, such companies can be called data-oriented but they are not data-driven because they only analyse a part of all the possible data that could be collected. Data-oriented companies collect real-time and historical data for monitoring, however, unlike data-driven companies, they do not look for the causes, nor do they make recommendations or decisions on the basis of this information.16

Most of the analyses of data-driven organizations are oriented at the future, they use predictive models to optimize spending or to respond to an element in the supply chain that is at a point of failure.18, 10, 8 They help prevent the loss of clients to competition through di?erent strategies such as the collection of external data or by o?ering a small discount to customers to persuade them not to leave. Certain tools and skills are necessary in order to perform these activities; However, above all, there must be a business culture that promotes the use of data as a basis for decision-making. It has not been demonstrated yet that data-driven companies benefit more from being oriented both to customers and to the internal organization, nevertheless it seems quite obvious that the decisions that are based on data will always have a better result. Therefore is suggested a CBR architecture to propose an alternative.

Presumably, customer- or user-related data have a direct impact on the company sales and revenues. The data related to the main activities of a company, such as feedback from the users on its products, is important in order to be able to calculate the costs and profits of a company. The aim of this work is to propose an alternative methodology for the measurement of financial impact that the collection, processing and storage of data generated by users has on a company. In the last decade, news reports have stressed the e?ectiveness of data-driven companies, however a real financial demonstrative or conclusive valuation method has not been proposed yet. However, there are some methodologies in the state of the art that make it possible to value the assets of a company, such as the Data – Information – Knowledge – Wisdom theory1 which analyzes the value of data at a certain period in time (since it’s raw Data to Wisdom) and valuing the data of a company as an asset,15 are some of the most known and representative methodologies. The actions carried out at each stage of the CBR architecture are detailed below.

Background

The costs that data capture, storage and processing entail are never the same for all companies. The amounts of data collected nowadays are big, however, with the growth of IoT and new technologies, those volumes will increase dramatically and all companies should be able to see where the break-even point is for their data. As mentioned before, since it is very hard to identify the point at which data has a certain value, when considering data as an asset, it can be evaluated with the DIKW methodology or by valuating the company as an asset.

That DIKW methodology is capable of calculating the value of the data at any point in its lifecycle. Also, the data have to be in the life-cycle like other organisational assets, information has a cost (collection, storage and maintenance) and a value (how it contributes to the revenue of a company). However, this is where the similarity ends. Information does not follow the same laws of economics as other assets do, because it has some unique properties which must be comprehended if their real value is to be measured correctly. (Glazer, 1993)9 State that data can be shared between multiple business areas and the cost will be the same as if a single party had exclusive use of the information. Another argument against valuing data as an asset is that we will miss the fact that duplicating data entails indirect costs as well as storage costs, these costs are not very noticeable nowadays but will be when the volume of data will increase.15 Due to those research gaps, the main objective of this work is to propose a methodology for analyzing the financial impact that data processing has on companies. The external data collected from users is going to be used in the development of a method for real conclusive economic assessment or prediction, that is, for the measurement of financial impact (ie: greater profit, lower costs,…).

It is sometimes argued that recommendation systems do not help consumers discover new services or products and only reinforce the popularity of the already popular ones.7 However, what is clear is that they are usually beneficial for the companies that use them.2, 13 Therefore, recommendation systems can serve as a tool for the measurement of financial impact on company benefits.

Proposed CBR Architecture

This work presents a hypothetical CBR architecture for the prediction of the financial impact that recommendation systems have on a company. The methodology will be based on a set of variables that are considered key to understanding the performance and the evolution of a company in a given sector. We have chosen several Key Performance Indicators as our variables which will make it possible to extract company performance patterns and compare them with di?erent companies. Those variables will indicate the financial evolution of the company, the human capital and market concentration. Companies that use recommendation systems and base their company model on it, need to collect large volumes of information to train the artificial intelligence models which help o?er products or services adapted to the client’s profile.

Figure 1

Figure 1: CBR cycle for the prediction of the financial impact of introducing a recommendation system

Click here to View figure

Some business models view the real-time data generated by customers as the added value of companies. Nowadays, we are capable of extracting value from all types of data as they all contribute to improve business. Nevertheless, it is true that the collection of customer data and customer flow is essential, without those elements companies would not be able to become as competitive. For instance, any social network based on a localization service requires constant information updates and algorithms that process information in real time.

Everyday more data is created and stored around the world, i.e: Google processes over 40,000 search queries every second on average, which is 3.5 billion searches per day and 1.2 trillion searches per year worldwide. As Google’s director of research Peter Norvig, puts it: “We don’t have better algorithms. We just have more data”. The storage, processing and analysis of data entail costs for the companies that collect them. A small mistake in data mining can have serious implications, leading, for example, to the poor performance of the algorithms that are going to be trained with incorrect data.

To measure the financial impact that recommender-system-facilitated data processing has on enterprises, it is first necessary to study the variables that allow for the development of cases in the knowledge base of the proposed architecture. The following set of variables must be used in the description of cases: (i) Company Sales, (ii) Company Earnings, (iii) Sta? Costs, (iv) Cash Flows, (v) Company Size, (vi) Company Sector, (vii) EBITDA and (viii) Company Location .

Figure 1 shows the flow of the proposed theoretical architecture which makes it possible to obtain a solution on the basis of information contained in past cases.The proposed architecture must be capable of obtaining case solutions for various companies. In this respect, it is necessary that the CBR architecture can be suitable for any company, regardless of the sector in which it develops its economic activity.

To best adapt the solutions of the architecture to the input data, the system’s case memory separates the information of each company into sectors. In addition, to calculate the financial impact, the architecture must have an ANN for each sector, which must be trained with the input variables (the ones listed above).

In the Retrieve step, the system recovers the neural network which has been trained with data from companies in the same sector. Having obtained the cases for a concrete sector, data is pre-processed to eliminate the information that does not provide relevant cases for study.

In the Reuse step, the neural network will estimate the economic impact of a recommen-dation system on a company. Once the objective solution has been reached and the impact of using a recommendation system is known, the ANN will be trained at regular intervals automatically as the amount of input data increases through the addition of new cases to the database. To validate whether the training of the database has been successful, the ANN will train the database with 70% of its data and will use the remaining 30% to test its functionality.12, 11

The learning process of the CBR architecture is performed in the Revision step. This review process must be carried out by a human in order to determine if the obtained economic impact corresponds to the company’s input data (This process will be carried out according to personal criteria and experience, nevertheless di?erent adjustments can be made). Otherwise, the case is discarded and the CBR cycle ends.

In the Retain step, regardless of whether the case had to be modified or not, if in the end it has been accepted it is stored in the Knowledge Database as a possible solution to a future problem.

Conclusions and Future work

The conclusion drawn from our research is that we still don’t have a real valuation method and it is something that companies will need shortly as the amount of data being stored by companies will double. It is necessary for them, therefore, to have the tools necessary to filter the data or to be able to measure their real cost at any level.

A real database will be used to test the CBR methodology on Spanish companies that do not operate in the stock market. The financial information of the companies will be anonymized and then used in the CBR to train the system and find possible patterns that will demonstrate the economic profit that comes from having a recommender system or correct data processing in a company. In the first step, the data of Spanish companies is going to be used, however, at a later stage it would be preferable to use the information of di?erent European companies to identify tendencies in di?erent countries and sectors.

Acknowledgments

This work has been developed thanks to the project “Virtual-Ledgers-Tecnologías DLT/Blockchain y Cripto-IOT sobre organizaciones virtuales de agentes ligeros y su aplicación en la eficiencia en el transporte de última milla” ( ID SA267P18 ), financed by Junta Castilla y León, Consejería de Educación and FEDER funds.

Conflict of Interest

The authors declare no conflict of interest.

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Performance analysis of Remote Sensing Application using area wise prediction - 首頁-博電競菠菜平臺|電競菠菜直播 - 比分滾球競猜吧! http://www.tdrbrbec.buzz/vol12no1/performance-analysis-of-remote-sensing-application-using-area-wise-prediction/ Wed, 24 Apr 2019 09:20:53 +0000 http://www.tdrbrbec.buzz/?p=10454 Introduction

The expression “remote sensing satellites” is also called as the “aerial photography” regard as the depiction. The main research focused on the evolution of remote sensing satellites in four decades i.e., 1960-2010. Detecting the portraits of the huge plane from expanded partitions utilized airborne picture making and they utilized to grab the pictures.1 Remote sensing systems came into the photography and they have been fetched in satellites for depiction obtaining. To compare with planes, satellites cover2 more surface regions and there are widely utilized.

Remotely detected symbolism from satellites3 – investigate and upgraded with PCs – made it conceivable to recognize and screen these progressions. Only some groups are exceptional with the term remote sensing.

Remote satellites continuously obtaining high-resolution pictures of the earth’s surface on the base stations. Data will take care of base stations in running several partitions stepwise. These partitions process the data. After gathering data, data is preprocessing so as to eliminate the noisy elements in the data to obtain high throughput. The data transformed into pictures for the purpose of being comprehensible formats and these images can be analyzed. By utilizing parameters by pertaining the threshold provisions to the depictions will partition the picture into the number of blocks which can be analyzed easily processing in making a decision and promoting. Then we analyzed the predicted regions from the land surface.

The framework can be divided into block map and evaluation can be characterized with the help of flow chart.

Related Work

RS (Remote sensors) is utilized for ground observatory will stream the continuous data andcreates an extent of data. The researcher implemented diverse areas of applications in satellite remote sensing data, for instance, the gradient based edge detection,4 change, identification and so on. The continuous real time streaming data5 with high speed or the huge extent of data available in the form of big data which lead to many challenges? In this regard, the transformation of the sensor data from remote places are difficult to scientific understanding is a challenging task. Satellite remote sensing is utilizing of various technologies to constructscrutiny and dimensions of destination that is usually recognizable to the stripped eye. The technologies in remote sensing are classified as, radar, thermal, seismic, sonar, LiDAR, electric field sensing, GPS and infrared radiation. The remote sensing satellites will export the data in the form of offline and online real time data.

Many researchers developed models based on satellite data for predicting coastline analysis and erosion. For instance, for the change rates of shoreline, coastal corrosion and creation in coastal area6 utilized satellite data. GIS tools7 are used to analyze multi sequential remote sensing data from 1976 to 2000 and twenty scenes are taken for the varying model of accumulation and corrosion of the sub aerial delta of the Yellow River. The aerial photographs in black and white8 are utilized to estimating the changing rate in shoreline at USA Neuse River Estuary. Space simulation9 is initiating a novel mode of perceptive the geographical space which includes the dynamic processes in the space analysis.

Framework

Figure 1 Figure 1: Framework of remote sensing application

Click here to View figure

 

Evolution Methods:

Dataset

Dataset is utilized in this work from “European space agency” which contains the number of tasks that are executed in the earlier period. And also took the necessary data for implementation and to examine the complex parameters for evaluation. After verifying these datasets will be added to the description. We classified these datasets into three main fields. The entire products are classified beneath of Advanced Synthetic Aperture Radar (ASAR).

Table 1: Data set of three major domains

Domain /Dataset Details I/P Dataset Details Final Dataset Output
ASA_APM Alternating APM uses Range-Doppler Algorithm ASA_APM. XT
  Polarization Mode used to derive higher-level products for SAR image quality assessment, calibration, and interferometric applications, converted to Image
ASA_IMM Image Mode
Medium Resolution
Image
IMM uses
Covers a continuous area along the imaging swath and features an
ENL
(radiometric resolution) good enough for ice applications.
ASA_IMM.XT converted to Image
ASA_GM1 Global Monitoring Image mode Product GM1 is processed to approximately 1 km resolution using the SPECAN algorithm ASA_GM1.XT converted to Image

 

Category 1: Agency of European

ASAR product optional domain is APM (Alternating Polarization Mode) and it includes both Co-registered pictures belongs to three divergence amalgamation, secondary forms (VV and VH

HH and VV, HH and HV). In accumulation, the result utilizes the Range Doppler (RD) algorithm and preprocessing data parameters accessible. It can be activated to infer addedanimated items for SAR account superior appraisal, alignment, and interferon metric applications, if accustomed for the device attainment. The entire products will be in the structureof (.N1) extension categorizer design.

Preprocessing data: In this phase, cleaning the data for removing the unwanted elements. Theauthentic preprocessing techniques consist of header analysis, and these datasets having will.

HAN extension files. Give dataset is input to header analysis and it converting the dataset into picture format. For every time, it will carry on producing the set of documents that sustain the data retrieval.

Han documentation contains investigation and restrictions of the datasets. This documentation contains size, largeness and magnitude in pixels, dimensions and constraints like SPH indicators, etc. After header observation completed the properties of the datasets are able to understand and the dimensions of the datasets will be utilized for partitioning the picture into an amount of chunks.

Full resolution pictures of the dataset are .N1 form in .XT documents. The information is set up to be export in the form of understandable for humans, which looks like GeoTIFF, TIFF picture formats. Preferring any of the result’s format (for our experiment results we utilized TIFF) and sending the picture in needed directory file. A fundamental fault occurs if the time concerns and continuous without coordinating dataset. Beside the picture, it furthermore generates the accurate restrictions of the datasets.

Domain 2: Resolution Image Mode Medium

When the device was in picture mode the data accumulated at Level zero ASAR-IMM created. By comparing with ASA_IMP, this result has lesser resolution but elevated the radiometric resolution which is adequate for ice applications which apply to a continuous area close to the imaging swath and features a radiometric resolution (ENL). Preprocessing is same as the domain 1.

Domain 3: Image in Global Monitoring Mode

When the device was in global monitoring mode the data accumulated at Level zero ASAR-GM1 created. Each item covers an entire trajectory. The research work includes slant range to land modifications. Standard for ASAR Global Monitoring Mode is the strip-line product. By utilizing the SPECAN algorithm it processed to one km resolution approximately.

Methodology

In our experiment results the image which is acquired from the dataset and partitioning image into tiny chunks in analyzing the geometric parameters. The partition is done due to come across the precise information. For every chunk, identifying the statistical parameters and assessment analysis is prepared from blocks. In our work, every image is partitioned into 20 blocks; these blocks are utilized for analysis accurate and easy.

The bunch of chunks derived from the picture will be using as input for the proposed algorithm. The algorithm acquires every chunk of the picture and updates the image list. This list is utilized diverse methods and functions for the purpose of analyze the statistical parameters of every chunk. For every picture chunk, the algorithm determines absolute difference, mean, standard deviation, etc.

For estimating the decision analysis process, the major parameters are:

Xi (Mean) 2. SD (Standard Deviation) 3. AD (Absolute difference) The variables and parameters utilized in our proposed algorithms.
Fixed size chunks of Picture are B1, B2, B3, B4, B5 …  BN \.
Number of lines in the Image = NR.
Number of pixels in every line = NSR
Picture chunk size =
Total number of chunks in the picture = N ( N =NR ×NSR)
BS
Mean of model values of chunk B I = X Bi where i = {1, 2, 3, 4 . . . N}. Summation of all values of the chunk B i /the size of chunk = X Bi SD of sample values of chunk Bi. = SD Bi AB between X Bi and SD Bi = Abs_Diff
| X Bi ? SD Bi | = Abs Diff
Total chunks mean Bi / the total number of chunks = Centric mean

By means of the above mention limitations, the subsequent will help in constructing the provisions and decision making.

The upper limit mean from mean of chunks is known as Maximum mean The maximum SD from SD of the chunks is known as Max SD. Maximum AD from AD of the chunks is known as Max AD Minimum AD from AD of the chunks is known as Min AD. Mean of all the chunks /Number of chunks = Centric mean

Table 2: Maximum and minimum of parameters

Product/ Dataset Max_mean Min_mean Max_std Min_std Max_abs diff Min_abs diff
ASA_APM 43.317369 1.8653104 10.448858 0.3913097 0.3913097 1.4093138
ASA_IMM 126.60508 0.6163557 40.749409 0.0604999 85.855666 0.1300828
ASA_GM1 76.229318 2.626605 33.132327 0.6374876 48.503959 1.9891174

 

SD of all the chunks = Centric SD
Number of chunks
For simplifying the restrictions, the in detail conditions are identified. Those:
Mean less than Centric mean = MLCM
Mean greater than centric mean = MGCM
SD less than centric SD = SLCS
SD greater than centric SD = SGCS
AD less than centric AD = ALCA
AD greater than centric AD = AGCA

In our approach, we build the following laws for detection of the region

Centric mean >=Mean of Bi
Centric SD <= SD of Bi
AD of Bi <= Centric AD For every (Bi) {
If (law1 == true and law2 == true) Condition_Bi = earth
Else if (law1 == false andlaw2 == false) Condition_Bi = ocean
Else {
If (law3 == false and law1 == false))
Condition_Bi = ocean
Else
Condition_Bi = earth}
}

For identifying the earth chunks

Centric mean >= Mean of Bi
SD of Bi >= Centric SD
Centric mean >= Mean of Bi
AD of Bi > Centric AD
Centric mean < Mean of Bi
AD of Bi > Centric AD

For identifying the ocean chunks

Centric mean < Mean of Bi
SD of Bi < Centric SD
AD of Bi > Centric AD

Visualization of Data

After applying the above rules by making the blocks are able to understand that whether the blocks belong to land or sea regions. In our implementation, we take csv file belongs to the land blocks and sea blocks for the better visualization of data. For this, we utilized the python programming and done visualization for the acquired chunks based on the mean of the chunks. Packages in python programming are pandas, Numpy, matplotlib and seaborne which are utilizing for statistical analysis and understandable visualization.

For example, the land and sea percentages for domain Alternating Polarization Medium are

Percentage of the Land is 83.3710954415.

Percentage of the Sea is 16.6289045585.

Figure 2 Figure 2: The output of land and sea percentages in the bar graph representation.

Click here to View figure

 

Analysis of Performance

We estimate the performance of the proposed method by increasing the number of chunks size and predicting the surface area region of land area or sea area.

Table 3: Number of blocks of each dataset

S. No Product Domain Product/ Dataset Number No. of blocks
1 ASA_AMP 10 10*20=200
2 ASA_IMM 10 200
3 ASA_GM1 10 200

 

Figure 3 Figure 3: Predicting the surface region.

Click here to View figure

 

Table 4: The land and sea percentages of the surface area detected for three domains when a number of blocks considered are 200 and datasets number is 10.

Domain/Product Number of blocks Land Percentage Sea percentage
ASA_APM 200 83.087951 16.912049
ASA_IMM 200 86.096668 13.903332
ASA_GM1 200 78.022045 21.977955

 

In our proposed method performance analysis assessment, IMM product has 86 % land region than the other products which proves that the highest land region has less sea region. With this we conclude that IMM has 13.9% sea region where the other products APM and GM1 has land ranging from 78-83% and sea 16-22 %.The table takes the 25 images as input and every dataset produces 20 smaller partitions. Each partition will give 20*25=500 chunks which will be used for predicting the surface region.

Table 5: Predictable results for three domains

S. No Product Domain Product/Dataset Number No. of blocks
1 ASA_AMP 25 25*20=500
2 ASA_IMM 25 500

 

Figure  4 Figure  4:  For different domains when the number of datasets/products are sent as input.

Click here to View figure

 

By calculating performance analysis, IMM gives more land region when compared with other products/ IMM has 84% land region and 15.4 % sea region whereas the land ranging from 77-83% and sea 16-23 % in APM and GM1

Table 6: The land and sea percentages of the surface area detected for three domains when a number of blocks considered are 200 and data sets number is 10.

Domain/Product Number of blocks Land Percentage Sea percentage
ASA_APM 500 83.4476219515 16.5523780485
ASA_IMM 500 84.5201838771 15.4798161229
ASA_GM1 500 77.1131895932 22.8868104068

 

The table indicates the performance testing of three methods gives the GM1 has 85% land region than IMM product and 14.9% of sea region whereas the APM and IMM products has land ranging from 77-84% and sea 16-23 %.

Table 7: 50 datasets as input and each dataset produces 20 smaller divided blocks.

S. No Product Domain Product/Dataset Number No. of blocks
1 ASA_AMP 50 50*20=1000
2 ASA_IMM 50 1000
3 ASA_GMM 50 1000

 

Figure 5 Figure 5:  Figure shows for different domains when datasets/products are sent as input.

Click here to View figure

 

Table 8: The land and sea percentages of the surface area detected for three domains

Domain/Product Number of blocks Land Percentage Sea percentage
ASA_APM 1000 83.371032 16.628968
ASA_IMM 1000 77.675842 22.324158
ASA_GM1 1000 85.047632 14.952368

 

Figure 6 Figure 6: Full resolution image extracted is converted into a set of blocks of equal sizes

Click here to View figure

 

Global Monitoring Mode (GM1) is increasing the number of partitioning chunks which gives more land region and less sea region. Whereas the APM product retains the stable percentage of land as well as the sea regions and it producing large of dissimilarity among percentages of regions is not seen in performance testing.

In the case of Image Mode Medium Resolution Image (IMM) the land percentages are decreasing as increasing the number of chunks. The number of images in the area of IMM is utilized for performance testing gives a slow decrease in land and sea regions.

Conclusions

In our proposed method, the overall result by analyzing the dissimilar domains in the remote sensing satellites which is uninterruptedly releasing the data. With different types of products are increasing we observed and analyzed the data behave with regard to land and sea surface regions. The data from satellite emitting continuously, surface area analysis will be less in time when different areas by diverse products are in use and analyze the surface regions. For analysis of a large number of surface regions required high Processing computational devices for ex, if we take 10 surface regions will require more than 500 products for each domain.

Future Work

In further, we will extend our proposed method not only for calculated and categorize the land and sea regions but also include diverse areas like forest areas, sand areas etc. we extending this work for predicting the earthquakes, tsunamis and natural disasters that can be recognized with analysis of proper recommendation to avoid the natural disasters. In future, we analyze rainfall prediction by utilizing the parameters like Co2, hydrogen, nitrogen contents in the air and corresponding land area whether the chance of rainfall is there or not.

References

  1. http://www.colorado.edu/geography/gcraft/notes/remote/remote_f.html
  2. https://prezi.com/i1hrip789ruy/orbits-and-satellites.
  3. http://www.oneonta.edu/faculty/baumanpr/geosat2/RS%20History%20II/RS-History-Part-2.html
  4. Harshaverdana et al., “Aadoption of Hadoop for a remote sensing real time big data analysis” international Journal of Advance Research in Engineering, Science &Technology,June-2016; Volume 3, Issue 6: e-ISSN: 2393 -9877, p- ISSN: 2394-2444.
  5. J. Shi, et al., “Change detection in synthetic aperture radar image based on fuzzy active contour”Mathematical Problems in Engineering Volume 2014 (2014), Article ID 870936, http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/870936.
    CrossRef
  6. Sheik Mujabar et al., Coastal erosion hazard and vulnerability assessment for southern coastal Tamil Nadu of India by using remote sensing and GIS. Nat Hazards. (2013); 69(3):1295–314.
  7. Chu ZX et al., Changing pattern of accretion/erosion of the modern Yellow River (Huanghe) subaerial delta, China: Based on remote sensing images. Mar Geol. (2006); 227(1–2):13–30.
  8. Cowart L., et al., Shoreline change along sheltered coastlines: Insights from the neuse river estuary, NC, USA. Remote Sens. (2011); 3(7):1516–34.
  9. RUHOFF, A. L., et al., Modelagem ambiental com a simula??o de cenários preservacionistas. 93 f. Disserta??o (Mestrado em Geomática) – Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, Santa Maria, 2004.
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Implementation of Digital Notice Board using Raspberry Pi and IOT - 首頁-博電競菠菜平臺|電競菠菜直播 - 比分滾球競猜吧! http://www.tdrbrbec.buzz/vol12no1/implementation-of-digital-notice-board-using-raspberry-pi-and-iot/ Wed, 24 Apr 2019 09:15:19 +0000 http://www.tdrbrbec.buzz/?p=10433 Introduction

Notice board is an essential information gathering system in our life. In our day-to-day life, we can see notice boards in various places like educational institutions, railway stations, shopping malls, Bus stations, offices etc. So we can say that Notice boards are the places to leave public information such as advertise events, announce events or provide attention to the public, etc. Nowadays a Separate person is needed to stick that information on the notice board. It will lead to loss of time as well as usage of manpower. In conventional analogue type notice boards paper is the main medium for information exchange. We know that information counts are endless. So there is a usage of a huge amount of paper for displaying those endless counts of the information.

The problems faced by the wooden or conventional type notice boards are resolved by the implementation of our digital notice board. It will bring an advanced means of passing notices around in the world in a much easier and efficient way. Due to the popularity of the internet, we choose the internet as a medium for transferring information. The Internet of things (IoT) is the network of physical devices, vehicles, home appliances and other items embedded with electronics. Software, which enables these objects to connect and exchange data. Each device is uniquely identifiable through its Embedded computing system but is able to interoperate within the existing Internet infrastructure For providing security, we add username and password type authentication system. So only respective authority can send information. Raspberry Pi which is the Heart of our system. A monitor is interfaced with Raspberry Pi. So the information in the form of text, image and pdf can display on the large screens. Our primary aim is to get more people’s attention on the display. By the usage of high definition display devices, people can get more attention on the notice board rather than conventional notice boards.0 In conventional wireless notice board can display only texted messages. But in our newly implemented system can display images and pdf documents in addition to text messages. Because in Educational institutions the majority of information given from the higher authorities in the form of images or pdf format. So displaying these types of information make our system more user-friendly. Due to the utilization of the internet, the sender can send a message anywhere in the world. There is no range limitation for the successful exchange of information.

Literature Survey

In early days GSM technology is used for displaying information.1 Here GSM module which is located at digital notice board is used to receive information from the authorized user and displayed. In this work, the only text message is transferred. It becomes inefficient when we need to transfer other than text messages. By introducing the concept of Bluetooth technology2 communications become faster and efficient. Here an android application is used for enabling Bluetooth for sending a message. This work mainly focused on cable replacement and data can send up to the rate of 1 Mb per sec. Bluetooth has a limited range (approximately 70m to 100 m).In order to increase the range of communication Zigbee based notice boards are introduced3 But here data rate is only about 250 Kb per sec. Wi-Fi-based digital notice boards are currently used in many places like schools, colleges, railway stations, Airports etc. Here Raspberry pi which acts as a receiver and it connected with local Wi-Fi networks. When a person wants to send information to the raspberry pi, the person first connected to corresponding Wi-Fi. So sender and receiver must be within the Wi-Fi range. The maximum possible range of Wi-Fi is about 100 meter. Due to this range, information exchange must be done within the boundaries.

Design Rationale

Achieving the following criteria is the main designing goal for the architecture of the proposed system.

Reduction of manpower: Reduction in the effort of a separate person, who has stick notices manually on the conventional notice board.

Reduction in time: The facilities in the high-speed internet, the peoples can view transmitted information on the display board within seconds. There is less waiting time for accessing the information.

Ease inaccessibility: Here notice information is accessed through the internet, so there will be widespread of the information over a wide region. Also, the internet will give access to its respective nodes connected to its server and hence accessibility becomes easy.

An improvement over technology: The sender and receiver are connected with each other with the help of internet. Thus it will enable communication over a wide range without any physical connections between them.

Reduction in the size of the system: Only Raspberry Pi is used for achieving the overall performance of the system. This single hardware makes a reduction in the system.

Proposed System

Figure 1 Figure 1: Proposed Methodology of IOT and Raspberry System

Click here to View figure

 

Overview

The figure above shows the Block diagram for the proposed system. The main objective of the system is to develop a wireless notice board that displays notices in the form of image, text, pdf. It uses a Raspberry Pi as a processor. Raspberry Pi is equipped with a Portable Projector/LCD display. We can display messages and can be easily set or changed from anywhere in the world. In addition, the mobile application is used to convert voice into text. Here the voice is passed through the voice reorganization system and converted into text. The system will send this message to the cloud. Then it passes to the notice board which is connected to the internet by Wi-Fi. The processor, process it and displayed on the screen. We can send the message to all the screens or the desired screen.

Methodology

The main function of the proposed system is to develop a Digital notice board that display message sent from the user through internet and to design a simple, user friendly system, which can receive and display notice in a particular manner with respect to date and time which will help the user to easily keep the track of notice board every day and each time he uses the system. The system consists of two sections called as sender and receiver, which shown in figure 1. The sender is responsible for sending valuable information through the wireless network. In order to access Digital notice board, the sender must enter into the corresponding web address. For preventing unauthorized access web address we provide security authentications like username and password. If the username and password entered are invalid then the user can’t access the digital notice board. When the user enters the correct password and user name web address will opened and get space for the information transmission. The user can access this web address either using a personal computer or mobile phone. To make the proposed system more user friendly we make an android application. By using this application sender can directly enter into the web address. In addition to this android application contain voice to speech converter. So the sender can send a text message through his own voice without typing messages. These messages including text file, image file and the pdf file will send to the cloud. In the simplest terms, cloud means storing and accessing data and programs over the Internet instead of our computer’s hard drive. The cloud is just a metaphor for the Internet.

In the receiver section, Raspberry Pi is connected on Wi-Fi for accessing the internet. The Raspberry Pi is a low cost, credit-card sized computer that plugs into a computer monitor or TV, and uses a standard keyboard and mouse. It is a capable little device that enables people of all ages to explore computing and to learn how to program in languages like Scratch and Python. It’s capable of doing everything you’d expect a desktop computer to do, from browsing the internet and playing high-definition video, to making spreadsheets, word-processing. Raspberry Pi is activated by supply power around 5v. After switching on Raspberry Pi, it will collect data from the cloud. The web address for collecting data from the cloud is already specified through a program written in the processor. Upon receiving messages it will display on the monitor. Raspberry Pi has no VGA port. So in order to interface the LCD monitor with Raspberry Pi, HDMI interface is used. The received text messages are displayed on the screen like a scrolling manner. Similarly received images will display on the screen. For displaying Pdf files, first, it converted into an image file by the program written in the Raspberry Pi. After converting all the pdf pages into images then it will display. Every two pages in the received pdf file will be displayed at a time. To achieve this monitor screen is spat into two sections. Each section displays each page. After a certain delay, the next pages will be displayed. All these messages are displayed sequentially after a short delay.

In addition to this, we provide Deleting and modification option at the web link. If the sender wants to delete some image or pdf file, he can simply delete it by clicking the corresponding link in the web page. Also, we delete or modify text messages whenever we want. After deleting the messages from the cloud it will automatically delete on the display after a short delay. We can change the scrolling text colour, text size, display graphics, delay between the messages by simply made changes on the program.

Algorithm

Following the step by step procedure will explain the actual working of the system

Start

Log in for the access notice board.

If the user is valid then go to step 4 otherwise go to step 2.

Select Information in the form of image, pdf and text files

Upload files.

Store the message.

Set the duration of displayed messages.

The set maximum limit for the size of the image to be displayed.

If the received image is less than the limit it will directly display. Otherwise, the image will be resized.

When pdf is received it will be converted to an image.

Received image and text files

Display stored messages in First in first out order (FIFO)

Check for new notice. If it occurs go to step 8.else go to step 9

Repeat the above steps when the power supply maintained.

Stop

Results and Discussions

The proposed system was successfully tested to demonstrate its effectiveness and feasibility. In this paper PC and android application is used as a transmitter and Raspberry is used as a receiver. Sender and receiver are interfaced through a wireless network Display are connected a. the receiver side. Raspberry Pi is connected to a Wi-Fi network to access data on the cloud. After establishing connection data stored on the cloud will be displayed.

Figure 2 Figure 2: Login page

Click here to View figure

 

For sending information sender must enter into the login page. Figure 2 shows the login page of our IOT based digital system. Username and Password are predetermined. If we enter the wrong username and password an error will be displayed on the login page, which is shown in figure 3. So after typing correct username and password in the respective columns, the next page will be displayed in the web server notice

Password error

 Figure 3 Figure 3: Invalid password detection

Click here to View figure

 

Upload page contains icons for sending text messages, pdf files, image files. In addition to this, there is a separate icon for deleting previously send data. Figure 4 shows the uploading page on a web server.

Figure 4 Figure 4: Upload page

Click here to View figure

 

For deleting previously send data simply click on the delete page icon. A new window will contain facilities to delete documents.

Figure 5 Figure 5: Digital Notice Board

Click here to View figure

 

In delete page which contains a separate list of our previously send data. In order to delete data by simply select the corresponding data in the list and press delete icon. After a short delay deleted data will be erased in the receiver section.

Figure 6 Figure 6: Displaying pdf files

Click here to View figure

 

Received pdf files are first converted to image format. After the conversion of pdf into an image it will be displayed. For making a dual display on a monitor, we paste each converted page in pdf on background image at a predetermined position. Figure 2 to 5 shows the login page, password protection, upload page and displaying the files.

Figure 6 shows the illustration of displaying pdf files on our digital notice board. Here two pdf pages are simultaneously displayed on the monitor.

When the received image size exceeds our predetermined values then it will be resized to our predetermined set of values and displayed. Received text messages will display like breaking news in TV channels. Text messages can also be sent from the android application through voice. After every 10 seconds, displayed messages will change to the next message. Newly send pdf, the image file has a high preference. So when we send a message in the form of image or pdf it will be displayed first then after 10 seconds delay previously received messages will display. But in the case of texted messages newly received message is displayed followed by the previously send a text message. So text message is displayed one after one in a serial manner. This process will continue as long as the power supply is maintained.

Advantages

Because of the usage of internet for the transmission of messages have a lot of advantages. It includes high data transmission rate, better message quality, less waiting time etc. Username and password authentication system make the system more secure. Here raspberry pi can act as a central processing unit. So we can send not only texted messages but also can send image files in the form of Jpg, jpeg, png and pdf files with better quality. By providing deleting option it makes the newly proposed system become user-friendly. This facilitates deleting any previously send data at any time. This system provides the first step to achieving a paperless community. Due to the reduced usage of paper in a community which make the community environmentally friendly. By utilizing the advantages of Raspberry Pi we can add graphics on displays. When adding graphics it will get more attention from peoples. Main aims of all type of notice boards are to pass information on peoples as much as possible. So this system can pass information on more peoples than conventional wooden type notice boards. Due to the inbuilt memory in Raspberry pi data from the cloud is stored. This will make the system non-volatile. Any failure in the power supply does not effect on the stored data. Due to these advantages, the proposed system can be extended to live telecasting of information around the world.

Conclusion

Now our world is moving towards digitalization, so if we want to do some changes in the previously used system we have to use the new techniques. Wireless technology provides fast transmission over long-range data transmission. It saves time, cost of cables, and size of the system. Data can be sent from anywhere in the world. Username and password type authentication system is provided for adding securities. Previously the notice board using Wi-Fi was used. In that, there was the limit of the coverage area, but in our system internet is used as a communication medium. So there is no problem with the coverage area. Multimedia data can be stored on a chip or on SD card. Text messages and multimedia data can be seen as fast as possible with better quality.

Acknowledgements

This research received no specific grant from any funding agency in the public, commercial, or not-for-profit sectors. The authors declare no conflict of interest.

Funding source

The author declares that there is no funding source.

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Health Monitoring System using Raspberry Pi and IOT - 首頁-博電競菠菜平臺|電競菠菜直播 - 比分滾球競猜吧! http://www.tdrbrbec.buzz/vol12no1/health-monitoring-system-using-raspberry-pi-and-iot/ Wed, 24 Apr 2019 09:10:53 +0000 http://www.tdrbrbec.buzz/?p=10424 Introduction

The Internet of Things is a rising topic of social, economic and technical significance. Internet of Thing using sensors, Processors and Microcontrollers with accessories used for communication through the internet and becoming the constitutive part of the Internet, it is built with a suitable protocol which helps the interacting and communicating with each other and with the users respectively. This communication through the internet helps to find many applications which are developed based on IoT technology in which every physical object like sensor devices are connected to the internet.1 Healthcare plays a major role in the Internet of things which reduces the difficulty faced by patients and doctors. The homecare is provided instead of the expensive clinical care and prevention is provided by the efficient healthcare service. This service will help every individual by following basic healthcare, which leads to more advantageous results.2 IOT technology is increasing to support the cost and quality of patient life and also ensures the life span of patients with proper medication. In conventional health care undetected health problems can be solved through this IoT Technology thereby ensures healthcare services by maintaining a digital identity for each patient complication can be greatly reduced. The communication between the health sensors device with the computer or smartphone which has the default ability to communicate with the server which makes the whole system cost reduction and the complexity of the system is also reduced. Hence the system can also be made IoT enabled and Machine TO Machine compatible.3 Here the proposed paper show reliable continuous monitoring by the doctor, a solution of patients anywhere in the world based on a healthcare monitoring system can be checked. The patients carry a set of body sensors to collect their body parameters.

Rest of the paper is organized as follows. In Section II, Related Work is discussed. Section III proposed a system. Section IV, implementation and results. Finally, Section V concludes the paper along with further research and references.

Literature Survey

In1 Ravi Kishore Kodali et al., proposed the healthcare monitoring which is implemented to check the temperature of the patient. The Zig Bee mesh protocol is used where the patient 24-hour care records are being monitored. In-hospital records are maintained in the cloud. IoT empowered devices at the same time enrich the quality of care with regular monitoring and collection of data actively and moderate the cost of care and analysis of the same. In2 Jasmeet Chhabra et al., proposes the plan and implementation for emergency medical services based on IoT health monitoring system. In this project, the patient health-related problems and healthcare cost are reduced. The collection, recording, analyzing and sharing data streams through the internet which reduces the patient problem of visiting the doctor every time to check the health parameter like heartbeat rate, temperature and blood pressure. In3 Thirumalasetty Sivakanth et al., presents a reconfigurable sensor network for essential health checking. The possibility of patients collapse and the life-threatening consequences is reduced in content and real-time health monitoring system. The 566 International Conference on Signal, Image Processing Communication and Automation – complete information of the patient is being mechanically obtained by the doctor by NFC technology. Biosensors interfaced with the microcontroller will screen the patient’s imperative health. If any of the sensor’s preset threshold value is overdone above, a sensor’s value will be sent to doctors and the patient’s caretaker through the message. In4 Y. T. Zhan et al., presents the implementation of telehealth systems for the elderly population and discussion on various chronic diseases and their importance. They discussed in detail about wearable technology for remote health care system. In5 A. Murray et al., presents the planning of modern medicine, effective and safe use of healthcare technology as essential for any healthcare system. Concerns about medical equipment care have been raised up. There is a need to discuss the progress of the health care system, In this paper, significant progress in the implementation of the healthcare system is proposed. Also, the lack of medical equipment safety measures and the protective steps that need to be taken care to improve the quality of healthcare is discussed. In6 Saed Tarapiah et al., presents the paper which guarantees to decrease the cost of the system and overall improvement in the quality of health care services. It is a system that can measure heart rate and body temperature and communicate with them in case of accidental behaviour to manage medical personnel using GSM, GPS and web technologies to achieve immediate action to save the patient’s life. In7 Dr K N Muralidhara and Bhoomika. B.K present the design for IoT smart healthcare system using the microcontrollers. In this, the pulse oximeter, the temperature sensor and the heart rate are designed for the patient and the microcontroller to send data through the wireless network protocol and the data also shows the patient displayed on the LCD screen who knows his health status. The experts can see the information that logs the log to the HTML site of the page using IP address and page recovery methods that are so persisted by the information collection. So the continuous patient’s check framework is composed.

In8 D. Mahesh Kumar presents health systems based on wireless sensor networks. The wide range of benefits of wireless technology for the medical staff, patients and the continuous monitoring of the community, early detection of abnormal situations and potential knowledge found in the past data inserted all the information collected. The system helps the health care staff to control the complete state of the patient in a separate, real-time and great way. Through the network can reach every node of the patient at any time as long as the network terminal is available. The patient sends a set of sensors to collect their body parameters. The medical staff evaluates the overall condition of each patient and checks the collected values of the nodes. Luciano Tarricone et al.,9 the paper suggests, IoT-aware, an architecture for tracking of patients, automatic checking, and biomedical devices within nursing institutes and hospitals. Sampada Sathe and Alok Kulkarni,10 paper attempts to evaluate and understand the application of IoT in personalized care for the realization of excellence in health care costs within reasonable limits. Here it describes how IoT’s functions and how to use it in the use of remote sensing technology and wireless technology to achieve health care requirements.

Proposed System

A health monitoring system consists of several sensors connected to a patient and they communicate the data through the processing unit. In the project, Raspberry Pi is used as a data aggregator as well as a processor. The patient and doctor smartphone/computer are used as a monitoring system.

As in figure 1, the sensors system is used to obtain the information or readings from the patient and the reading which is read is converted into signals. These signals are provided for processing to Raspberry Pi, which is the IoT module. The Pi then displays the information on a Monitor and also stores the information over the cloud. This information can be accessed by the doctor on his phone/computer and get the information. If any emergencies, the patient is sent an alert automatically through the mail for medical medication.

The flow diagram of the project is shown in figure 2, the sensors value are read and displayed on the monitor and stored in the cloud for future use. If blood pressure sensor output is above 120 an alert mail is sent to the patient automatically to consult the doctor.

Figure 1 Figure 1: Block Diagram

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Figure 2 Figure 2: Flow Diagram

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Implementation and Result

The kit implementation for Health Monitoring System is shown in figure 3. The Mouse and Keyboard connected to the USB port of Pi and the Monitor connected to the HDMI video port. The sensors connected to the GPIO pin through which the data from the Pi is transferred to the server and the patient can monitor the data on the monitor.

Figure 3 Figure 3: Kit Implementation for an IoT based Health Monitoring

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Figure 4 shows the display of the health monitoring system on the patient’s monitor. After the use of the pulse rate, blood pressure and heart sound sensor, the digital output from the sensor through the Pi is displayed on the Monitor.

Figure 4 Figure 4: Display on Monitor after Execution

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The Pi camera output is displayed on the server, the IP address of the server is the same as the IP address of the raspberry pi. The camera output is shown in figure 5.

Figure 5 Figure 5: Pi Camera Output

博電競菠菜平臺

 

The Sensors output is displayed on the server, the IP address of the server is the same as the IP address of the raspberry pi which is shown in figure 6. This is a database where the patient’s health report is stored for future requirement by the doctor and the patient. If the patients’ blood pressure >120 an alert mail is sent to the patient by the doctor for the medical medication.

Figure 6 Figure 6: Server Output on Monitor

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Conclusion

IoT Technology is an integration of various technologies which enables different devices and objects to interact with each other and use different network technologies. The proposed system gives better and effective health care services to patients and the information collected is networked worldwide through internet and communication devices in turn connected to cloud services and doctors can use this data and provide a quick and effective solution. The proposed model is a well-equipped system where the doctor can check his patient anywhere, anytime. Emergency alert e-mail is sent to the patients if the threshold value is reached to consult the doctor. This system is helpful for patients who are advised for the complete bed rest and the paralyzed patients, where the doctor can physical monitored the patient from the home with the help of the Pi camera which is used in the system. The aim of the proposed framework is to adopt a new production of medical systems that can provide health care services for high quality and low-cost patients using this combination of large data analysis, cloud computing, and computing technologies. The enhancement for the designed system will connect more sensors and connect all the objects to the Internet for quick and easy access. Further enhancement of the existing model can also be deployed as a mobile application in order to become easy to access the model around the world. The mobile application can be enhanced with the ambulance services, doctor’s list, nearby hospitals. The patients who are advised for the complete bed rest and the paralyzed patients can also be monitored and given precautions by the doctors by visual and audio by using the Pi camera. The system is implemented for one-to-one access, which can be implemented for many by giving a unique id for each member/patient in the home or the hospital.

Acknowledgements

We are very much thankful to the Management of VISTAS Pallavaram for funding this project.

References

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